This concise, accessible text teaches how to write logical, cohesive arguments and how to evaluate the arguments of others.
Table of Contents
Guide to Readings Preface 1. Thinking and Writing--A Critical Connection Thinking Made Visible The Power of Writing Persuasively THE ADVENT OF E-MAIL Critical Thinking CRITICAL THINKING AS SELF-DEFENSE AN OPEN MIND--EXAMINING YOUR WORLD VIEW MEDIA LITERACY Audience and Purpose WRITING ASSIGNMENT 1 Considering Your Audience and Purpose Writing as a Process STRATEGIES FOR GENERATING IDEAS THE FIRST DRAFT THE TIME TO BE CRITICAL ONE WRITER'S PROCESS REASON, INTUITION, IMAGINATION, AND METAPHOR WRITING ASSIGNMENT 2 Your Writing Process He or She? What You Can Expect from This Book MORE THAN ONE APPROACH COLLABORATION SHARPENING SENTENCE SKILLS AND INCREASING COHERENCE Enjoying the Challenge of Thinking and Writing SUMMARY KEY TERMS 2. Inference--Critical Thought What Is an Inference? HOW RELIABLE IS AN INFERENCE? vii What Is a Fact? FACTS AND JOURNALISM What Is a Judgment? Achieving a Balance Between Inference and Facts FACTS ONLY SELECTING FACTS INFERENCES ONLY Reading Critically WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3 Reconstructing the Lost Tribe Making Inferences--Analyzing Images Making Inferences--Writing About Fiction WRITING ASSIGNMENT 4 Interpreting Fiction SUMMARY KEY TERMS 3. The Structure of Argument Premises and Conclusions Distinguishing Between Premises and Conclusions Standard Form Ambiguous Argument Structure WRITING ASSIGNMENT 5 Creating a Political Handout Standard Form, Essay Organization, and Revision WRITING ASSIGNMENT 6 Responding to an Editorial Argument and Explanation--Distinctions Logical Relationships Between Ideas--Joining Words and Coherence CHOICE OF JOINING WORDS REVISING FOR COHERENCE Hidden Assumptions in Argument DANGERS OF HIDDEN ASSUMPTIONS HIDDEN ASSUMPTIONS AND STANDARD FORM HIDDEN ASSUMPTIONS AND AUDIENCE AWARENESS SUMMARY KEY TERMS 4. Written Argument Focusing Your Topic THE ISSUE viii D E T A I L E D C O N T E N T S THE QUESTION AT ISSUE THE THESIS TWO KINDS OF THESIS STATEMENTS Shaping a Written Argument--Rhetorical Strategies THE INTRODUCTION THE DEVELOPMENT OF YOUR ARGUMENT HOW MANY PREMISES SHOULD AN ARGUMENT HAVE? THE CONCLUSION A Dialectical Approach to Argument ADDRESSING COUNTERARGUMENTS HOW MUCH COUNTERARGUMENT? REFUTATION AND CONCESSION ROGERIAN STRATEGY WHEN THERE IS NO OTHER SIDE Logical Joining of Contrasting and Concessive Ideas THE CONCESSIVE SENTENCE More on Coherence Sample Essays Four Approaches to Writing Arguments WRITING ASSIGNMENT 7 Arguing Both Sides of an Issue WRITING ASSIGNMENT 8 Taking a Stand WRITING ASSIGNMENT 9 Exploring an Argument in Depth--An Alternative WRITING ASSIGNMENT 10 Collaborating on a Complex Issue--A Group Approach SUMMARY KEY TERMS 5. The Language of Argument--Definition Definition and Perception CONTROLLING THE DISCOURSE DEFINING OURSELVES DEFINITION AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES Language: An Abstract System of Symbols THE IMPORTANCE OF SPECIFICITY ABSTRACTIONS AND EVASION EUPHEMISM AND CONNOTATION Definition in Written Argument APPOSITIVES--A STRATEGY FOR DEFINING TERMS WITHIN THE SENTENCE APPOSITIVES AND ARGUMENT PUNCTUATION OF APPOSITIVES D E T A I L E D C O N T E N T S ix EXTENDED DEFINITION WRITING ASSIGNMENT 11 Determining Your State's Position on Gay Marriage WRITING ASSIGNMENT 12 Composing an Argument Based on a Definition Stipulating Personal Meaning PLATO SHAKESPEARE AMBROSE BIERCE INVENTING NEW WORDS TO FILL A NEED WRITING ASSIGNMENT 13 Creating a New Word SUMMARY KEY TERMS 6. Fallacious Arguments What Is a Fallacious Argument? APPEAL TO AUTHORITY APPEAL TO FEAR APPEAL TO PITY BEGGING THE QUESTION DOUBLE STANDARD EQUIVOCATION FALSE ANALOGY FALSE CAUSE FALSE DILEMMA HASTY GENERALIZATION PERSONAL ATTACK POISONING THE WELL SLIPPERY SLOPE STRAW MAN WRITING ASSIGNMENT 14 Analyzing an Extended Argument KEY TERMS 7. Deductive and Inductive Argument Key Distinctions (1) NECESSITY VERSUS PROBABILITY (2) FROM GENERAL TO SPECIFIC, SPECIFIC TO GENERAL The Relationship Between Induction and Deduction Deductive Reasoning x D E T A I L E D C O N T E N T S CLASS LOGIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CLASSES INCLUSION EXCLUSION OVERLAP CLASS LOGIC AND THE SYLLOGISM THE SUBJECT AND THE PREDICATE TRUTH, VALIDITY, AND SOUNDNESS GUILT BY ASSOCIATION MORE ON SYLLOGISMS Inductive Reasoning GENERALIZATION THE DIRECTION OF INDUCTIVE REASONING TESTING INDUCTIVE GENERALIZATIONS CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING STATISTICAL GENERALIZATIONS HASTY GENERALIZATIONS THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT SURVEYS AND STATISTICS MISTAKING CORRELATION FOR CAUSATION CONSIDERING THE SOURCE WRITING ASSIGNMENT 15 Questioning Generalizations WRITING ASSIGNMENT 16 Conducting a Survey: A Collaborative Project A Note on Deduction, Induction, and Written Argument SUMMARY KEY TERMS 8. The Language of Argument--Style Verbal Modifiers DANGLING MODIFIERS Parallelism THE STRUCTURE OF PARALLELISM LOGIC OF THE PARALLEL SERIES EMPHASIZING IDEAS WITH PARALLELISM Sentence Focus--Techniques for Sharpening the Flow of Ideas CONCRETE SUBJECTS ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VERBS PASSIVE VERBS AND EVASION WHEN THE PASSIVE IS APPROPRIATE SHARP PARAGRAPH FOCUS Revision WRITING ASSIGNMENT 17 Revising an Essay D E T A I L E D C O N T E N T S xi SUMMARY KEY TERMS 9. Research, Summary, and Documentation Research WHERE TO BEGIN CHECK THE ADDRESS REFINE YOUR SEARCH DON'T FORGET BOOKS TAKE NOTES NECESSARY BIBLIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL THREE OPTIONS FOR INCLUDING RESEARCH INTEGRATE RESEARCH INTO YOUR OWN WRITING MAKE THE PURPOSE CLEAR PUNCTUATION AND FORMAT OF QUOTATIONS OMITTING WORDS FROM A DIRECT QUOTATION--ELLIPSIS Summary STRATEGIES FOR WRITING A SUMMARY AN EXAMPLE OF A SUMMARY WRITING ASSIGNMENT 18 Constructing a Summary and Response Plagiarism Documentation WHAT INFORMATION SHOULD BE DOCUMENTED? HOW TO DOCUMENT INFORMATION THE MLA STYLE OF DOCUMENTATION FOR PRINTED SOURCES CITATIONS WITHIN YOUR TEXT LIST OF WORKS CITED: MLA THE APA STYLE OF DOCUMENTATION FOR PRINTED SOURCES CITATIONS WITHIN YOUR TEXT LISTS OF WORKS CITED: APA ELECTRONIC SOURCES CITATIONS WITHIN YOUR TEXT LISTS OF WORKS CITED: MLA LISTS OF WORKS CITED: APA Formatting Your Paper VERB TENSES A Reminder Text Credits Index xii D E T A I L E D C O N T E N T S GUIDE TO READINGS 1. Thinking and Writing--A Critical Connection "The Problem with New Data," Jon Carroll NEWSPAPER COLUMN "The Child's Draft," Anne Lamott BOOK EXCERPT "The Writer," Richard Wilbur POEM 2. Inference--Critical Thought "The Facts of Media Life," Max Frankel ESSAY "The Totleigh Riddles," John Cotton POEMS "Mirror," Sylvia Plath POEM "Metaphors," Sylvia Plath POEM "On Me!," Philip Levine POEM "Grace Period," Will Baker FICTION "Hostess," Donald Mangum FICTION 3. The Structure of Argument "Bush Remarks Roil Debate over Teaching of Evolution," Elizabeth Bumiller NEWSPAPER ARTICLE "Of God and the Case for Unintelligent Design," Lisa Fullam NEWSPAPER ARTICLE xiii 4. Written Argument "Could It Be That Video Games Are Good for Kids?" Steven Johnson EDITORIAL "Pro-Choice and Pro-Life," Art Hoppe NEWSPAPER COLUMN "College Atheletes--Special Admissions?" STUDENT ESSAY "Rap Takes a Bum Rap," John Herschend STUDENT ESSAY "A Case for Affirmative Action," Cynthia Tucker EDITORIAL 5. The Language of Argument--Definition "The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently," Thomas Lux POEM "Let Gays Marry," Andrew Sullivan ESSAY "Leave Marriage Alone," William Bennett ESSAY "Imagination" STUDENT ESSAY "Radical"  STUDENT ESSAY "Radical"  STUDENT ESSAY 6. Fallacious Arguments "On Date Rape," Camille Paglia ESSAY "Boxing, Doctors--Round Two," Lowell Cohn NEWSPAPER COLUMN "Say Goodbye to SUVs," Rich Lowrey EDITORIAL 7. Deductive and Inductive Argument "Mechanics' Logic," Robert Pirsig BOOK EXCERPT xiv G U I D E T O R E A D I N G S "A Study in Scarlet," Arthur Conan Doyle FICTION "Preventive Medicine, Properly Practiced," Dr. Susan Love ESSAY 8. Research, Summary, and Documentation "AP Courses--Mounting Burden, Declining Benefit," Nathan Yan STUDENT ESSAY "Other People's Words, " Paul Gray ESSAY G U I D E T O R E A D I N G S xv
Sheila Cooper and Rosemary Patton are lecturers at San Francisco StateUniversity.