The book is devoted to the theory of development of the biological systems. The fundamental equation of life of a biological population, based on the general physical principles, allows us to get all the basic equations of population dynamics, describing the development of the populations under various environmental conditions. The equations describe the population transition that occurred in our human population in the late 20-th century. This transition may indicate the fact that the human population consists of two super-races - the old "slow" race, and new fast-growing human race that appeared on Earth relatively recently. The separate chapter presents the base classification of predator-prey systems. The classification consists of ninety-six different equation systems. The book is addressed to a broad auditorium of biologists, ecologists, and demographers, as well as readers, interested in the development of the biological populations. Translated from Russian.