An unusual approach to human evolution written from the standpoint of dialectical materialism and other Soviet science and political theory. From the author's preface: "The process of anthropogenesis is vastly different from the phylogenic development of any species of the higher vertebrates, even of the apes. The problem, therefore, requires a complex approach employing data established by the social sciences that have Marxist philosophy as their basis. A comprehensive solution of the problem under discussion can only be made from the standpoint of dialectical and historical materialism; Marxism-Leninism has enabled anthropologists to make a profound and truly scientific analysis of the very essence of anthropogenesis. Dialectical materialism, a method the present author has endeavored to apply in his work, is a most powerful weapon in the struggle against idealist concepts of the origin of man." Chapter topics include: The Darwin and Other Hypotheses Concerning Anthropogenesis The Anthropoid Apes and Their Origin Criticism of the Later Hypotheses Concerning the Origin of Man Physical Peculiarities of the Human Body and the Emergence of Man Role of Work and Erect Locomotion Brain and Higher Nervous Activity Herd Instinct in Monkeys and Rudimentary Forms of Labor Palaeanthropological Data on the Making of Man Earliest Men Pithecantropi Neanderthalers and their Physical Type Neanderthalers on USSR Territory Palestine Neanderthalers Modern Man Races of Mankind Science Against Racism, and many other topics.