These compiled conference papers range from philosophical to highly technical and from advocacy to opposition. Herein, the papers are arranged according to the following sections of the conference: Recreation and Wildlife Economic Methods and Techniques International Case Studies Nonconforming Opportunity Costs of Wilderness Local Economic Impacts Economic Value in Decision Making Noneconomic Benefits of Wilderness Special Reports A number of ideas, concepts, and knowledge gaps seem to permeate the papers. Foremost among them is the problem of defining that which is to be valued. Unlike apples and oranges, wilderness presents dimensions ranging from the tangible to the existential. Is there a holistic system value different from the sum of individual units? What, in fact, are the defining characteristics of individual units and how can they be measured separately and interactively? There are no easy answers. The economics profession appears to be ready with a theoretical and methodological tool kit to address parts of the problem. Indeed, papers at this conference illustrate advances in measuring components of both direct and indirect, consumptive and nonconsumptive benefits attributable to wilderness, specific wilderness sites, and particular aspects of individual wilderness areas. Nevertheless, the development of these tools is at its infancy, and they will be very limited until the huge gaps in understanding the physical, psychological, political, and philosophical relationships inherent in complex wilderness systems are better understood.