Most teachers and researchers would agree that any success or failure in language learning is largely dependent on the learner's motivation to learn the foreign language. But what is motivation? How can we increase it? How can we assess it? These are some of the key questions covered by this book. It provides a summary of the various facets of motivation and examines how theoretical insights can help language teachers in their everyday teaching practice. The text covers both theory and practice, is illustrated with concrete examples, and offers research guidelines and tips for both novice and experienced teachers. A companion Website contains useful web linmks, lists of relevant databases, and 150 questionnaire items.
Table of Contents
Introduction Acknowledgements SECTION 1: WHAT IS MOTIVATION? 1. MAIN CHALLENGES OF MOTIVATION RESEARCH: The challenge of consciousness vs. unconsciousness; The challenge of cognition vs. affect; The challenge of reduction vs. comprehensiveness; The challenge of 'parallel multiplicity'; The challenge of context; The challenge of time 2. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION IN PSYCHOLOGY: Leading motivation theories in psychology; Sociocultural and contextual influences on behaviour; The temporal dimension of motivation 3. MOTIVATION TO LEARN A FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE: Gardner's motivation theory; Expectancy-value theories and L2 motivation; Self-determination theory and L2 motivation; Schumann's neurobiological model; Constructs emerging from empirical studies; L2 motivation and the social context; The temporal dimension of L2 motivation; Dornyei and Otto's Process Model of L2 motivation. SECTION 2: MOTIVATION AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING 4. 'EDUCATION-FRIENDLY' APPRACHES IN MOTIVATION RESEARCH: The educational shift in L2 motivation research; Educationally motivated constructs 5. MOTIVATION AND MOTIVATING IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM: Motivational techniques, strategies and macrostrategies; A framework for motivational strategies; Motivational macrostrategies 6. STUDENT DEMOTIVATION: 'Demotivation' vs. 'Motivation'; Research on demotivation in instructional communication studies; Findings in L2 motivation research; Concluding remarks on demotivation 7. TEACHER MOTIVATION: Conceptualising the 'motivation to teach'; The Relationship between teacher motivation and student motivation. SECTION 3: RESEARCHING MOTIVATION 8. MAKING MOTIVATION A RESEARCHABLE CONCEPT: Inherent problems in motivational research; Initial decisions to make 9. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS: Research Design; 'Self-report' motivation tests/questionnaires 10. MAIN TYPES OF L2 MOTIVATION RESEARCH: Survey studies; Factor analytical studies; Correlational studies; Studies using structural equation modelling (LISREL); Qualitative studies; Towards a combined use of quantitative and qualitative studies. SECTION 4: RESOURCES AND FURTHER INFORMATION 11. THE LOCUS OF MOTIVATION RESEARCH: Linkages to other Topics and Disciplines; Language learning motivation and related disciplines in the social sciences; The place of motivation research in applied linguistics 12. SOURCES AND RESOURCES: Relevant journals and magazines; Databases, abstracting journals and discussion groups; Sample tests and measurement instruments