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Analysis and Design of Systems in Equilibrium



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Statics: Analysis and Design of Systems in Equilibrium by Sheri D. Sheppard
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"[These authors speak] to the students in a manner that engages their minds in today's world. Students will grasp how statics enables us to analyze practical, everyday problems well as advanced designs. It is much more practical than similar texts."----Roy Henk, LeTourneau University "The descriptions of forces are great. The examples are great. Chapter 6 [focuses] only on [free body diagrams]. This is a novel concept that I think is great. I believe that the repetitive introduction of the [free body diagram] will really help the students. I would adopt this book for Chapters 4 and 6 alone."----Makola Abdullah, FAMU/Florida State University "I like the idea that students start with a concrete experience (bicycle). That will help them understand why we are presenting what we are presenting..."----Paul Barr, New Mexico State University Engineering success starts here. Your coursework in engineering mechanics helps you develop key analytical skills that you will rely on throughout your subsequent coursework and career. That's why Sheppard and Tongue's Statics: Analysis and Design of Systems in Equilibrium, and their accompanying volume, Dynamics: Analysis and Design of Systems in Motion, focus on helping you build the skills and knowledge you need to succeed. Drawing free body diagrams starts here. The authors continuously emphasize the importance of communicating solutions through graphics. They focus on drawing correct free body diagrams through an innovative illustration program used throughout the text, and dedicate a full chapter to free body diagrams to help you develop this vital skill. Strong problem--solving skills start here. Sheppard and Tongue introduce a consistent analysis procedure early in the text, and use it throughout, including all worked examples. This problem--solving methodology helps you develop the skills to apply these principles systematically in your analysis of mechanics problems. Learning to simplify the complexities of engineered systems starts here. Innovative real--world case studies and system analysis exercises show you how to simplify and model the system to perform analysis. Exercises introduce some basic design issues, inviting you to suggest design improvements. Also available by the same authors: Dynamics: Analysis and Design of Systems in Motion ISBN 0--471--40198--6

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.1.1 How Does Engineering Analysis Fit into Engineering Practice?1.2 Physics Principles: Newton's Laws Reviewed.1.3 Properties and Units in Engineering Analysis.EXERCISES Coordinate Systems and Vectors.EXERCISES Drawing.EXERCISES Problem Solving.EXERCISES 1.6 191.7 A Map of This Book.1.8 Just the Facts.CHAPTER 2: THE BICYCLE ("STATIC" DOESN'T MEAN THAT YOU AREN'T MOVING).2.1 The Forces of Bicycling.2.2 What Is the Maximum Speed?2.3 Adding More Reality.2.4 Just the Facts.SYSTEM ANALYSIS (SA) EXERCISES.SA2.1 Exploring a Bicycle.SA2.2 Analysis of Bicycle Performance.CHAPTER 3: THE GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE.3.1 A Walk Across the Bridge.3.2 How Heavy Should the Anchorages Be?3.3 Adding More Reality.3.4 Just the Facts.3.5 References.SYSTEM ANALYSIS (SA) EXERCISES.SA3.1 Exploring a Suspension Bridge.SA3.2 Exploring a Beam Bridge.SA3.3 Exploring an Arch Bridge.SA3.4 Exploring a Cable-Stayed Bridge.CHAPTER 4: FORCES.4.1 What Are Forces?4.2 Gravitational Forces.EXAMPLE 4.1 Gravity, Weight, and Mass (A).EXAMPLE 4.2 Gravity, Weight, and Mass (B).EXAMPLE 4.3 Gravity, Weight, and Mass (C).EXERCISES Contact Forces.EXAMPLE 4.4 Types of Forces.EXERCISES Analyzing Forces.EXAMPLE 4.5 Practice in Applying the Engineering Analysis Procedure.EXERCISES Magnitude and Direction Define a Force.EXAMPLE 4.6 Representing Planar Forces (A).EXAMPLE 4.7 Representing Planar Forces (B).EXAMPLE 4.8 Representing Nonplanar Forces (A).EXAMPLE 4.9 Representing Nonplanar Forces (B).EXERCISES Resultant Force (Vector Addition).EXAMPLE 4.10 Vector Addition Practice (A).EXAMPLE 4.11 Vector Addition Practice (B).EXAMPLE 4.12 Vector Addition Practice (C).EXAMPLE 4.13 Vector Addition Practice (D).EXERCISES Angle Between Two Forces (The Dot Product).EXAMPLE 4.14 Vector Addition Practice (E).EXERCISES Just the Facts.SYSTEM ANALYSIS (SA) EXERCISES.SA4.1 Calibrating Your Capacity.SA4.2 Estimating Force Values.SA4.3 Problem: Forces to Hold the Scoreboard in Place.SA5.3 Vehicle Recovery: Attempt 2.SA5.4 Too Much Moment Can Topple a Crane.CHAPTER 5: MOMENTS.5.1 What Are Moments?EXAMPLE 5.1 Specifying the Position Vector (A).EXAMPLE 5.2 Specifying the Position Vector (B).EXAMPLE 5.3 The Magnitude of the Moment (A).EXAMPLE 5.4 The Magnitude of the Moment (B).EXAMPLE 5.5 Increasing the Magnitude of the Moment (A).EXAMPLE 5.6 Increasing the Magnitude of the Moment (B).EXERCISES Mathematical Representation of a Moment.EXAMPLE 5.7 Increasing the Magnitude of the Moment (C).EXAMPLE 5.8 Calculating the Moment.EXAMPLE 5.9 Moment Calculations for Various Physical Situations.EXAMPLE 5.10 Another Example of Finding the Moment.EXAMPLE 5.11 Finding the Force to Create a Moment (A).EXAMPLE 5.12 Finding the Force to Create a Moment (B).EXERCISES Finding Moment Component in a Particular Direction.EXAMPLE 5.13 Using the Dot Product to Find the Moment in a Particular Direction.EXERCISES Equivalent Loads.EXAMPLE 5.14 Equivalent Moment and Equivalent Force (A).EXAMPLE 5.15 Equivalent Moment and Equivalent Force (B).EXAMPLE 5.16 Working with Couples (A).EXAMPLE 5.17 Working with Couples (B).EXAMPLE 5.18 Working with Couples (C).EXAMPLE 5.19 Equivalent Loadings Including Couples.EXAMPLE 5.20 Equivalent Loads Including Couples.EXAMPLE 5.21 The Analysis Procedure Revisited.EXERCISES Just the Facts.SYSTEM ANALYSIS (SA) EXERCISES.SA5.1 Consideration of Left- and Right-Foot Pedaling.SA5.2 Vehicle Recovery: Attempt 1.SA6.3 Free-Body Diagram Based on Experimental Evidence.SA6.4 Free-Body Diagram Based on Experimental Evidence with a Partner.SA6.5 The Bicycle Revisited.CHAPTER 6: DRAWING A FREE-BODY DIAGRAM.6.1 Types of External Loads Acting on Systems.EXERCISES Planar System Supports.EXAMPLE 6.1 Complete Free-Body Diagrams.EXAMPLE 6.2 Evaluating the Correctness of Free-Body Diagrams.EXERCISES Nonplanar System Supports.EXAMPLE 6.3 Exploring Single and Double Bearings and Hinges.EXAMPLE 6.4 Evaluating the Correctness of Free-Body Diagrams.EXERCISES Planar and Nonplanar Systems.EXAMPLE 6.5 Identifying Planar and Nonplanar Systems.EXAMPLE 6.6 Using Questions to Determine Loads at Supports (A).EXAMPLE 6.7 Using Questions to Determine Loads at Solid Supports.EXAMPLE 6.8 Using Questions to Determine Loads at Supports (B).EXERCISE Distributed Forces.EXERCISES Free-Body Diagram Details.EXAMPLE 6.9 Creating a Free-Body Diagram of a Planar System (A).EXAMPLE 6.10 Creating a Free-Body Diagram of a Planar System (B).EXAMPLE 6.11 Creating a Free-Body Diagram of a Planar System (C).EXAMPLE 6.12 Creating a Free-Body Diagram of a Nonplanar System (A).EXAMPLE 6.13 Creating a Free-Body Diagram of a Nonplanar System (B).EXAMPLE 6.14 Creating a Free-Body Diagram of a Nonplanar System (C).EXERCISES Just the Facts.SYSTEM ANALYSIS (SA) EXERCISES.SA6.1 Checking on the Design of a Chair.SA6.2 Following the Path of the Gravitational Force.CHAPTER 7: MECHANICAL EQUILIBRIUM.7.1 Conditions of Mechanical Equilibrium.EXAMPLE 7.1 Leaning Person.7.2 Application of the Conditions-Planar Systems.EXAMPLE 7.2 Cantilever Beam with Two Forces and a Moment.EXAMPLE 7.3 A Simple Structure.EXAMPLE 7.4 Planar Truss Connection.EXAMPLE 7.5 Identifying Two-Force and Three-Force Elements.EXAMPLE 7.6 Two-Force Element Analysis Example.EXAMPLE 7.7 Three-Force Element Example.EXAMPLE 7.8 Frictionless Pulley.EXERCISES Application of the Conditions-Nonplanar Systems.EXAMPLE 7.9 High-Wire Circus Act.EXAMPLE 7.10 Cantilever Beam with Off-Center Force and Couple.EXAMPLE 7.11 Nonplanar Problem with Unknowns Other Than Loads.EXERCISES Zooming In.EXAMPLE 7.12 Analysis of a Toggle Clamp.EXAMPLE 7.13 Multiple Pulleys.EXERCISES Determinate, Indeterminate, and Underconstrained Systems.EXAMPLE 7.14 Identify Structure.EXAMPLE 7.15 Considering a Statically Indeterminate Situation.EXERCISES Just the Facts.SYSTEM ANALYSIS (SA) EXERCISES.SA7.1 Bracing Against Moving Loads.SA7.2 Keeping the Score Board in the Air.SA7.3 Will the Chair Flip?SA7.4 Analysis of a System in Various Configurations.SA7.5 Arm Strength.SA7.6 Friction on Golden Gate Bridge Anchorage.SA7.7 Mechanical Equilibrium of a Vehicle.SA7.8 Ancient Siege Engines.SA7.9 Ancient Siege Engines-Other Design Ideas.SA7.10 Evaluation of a Lattice Boom Crane.CHAPTER 8: DISTRIBUTED FORCE.8.1 Center of Mass, Center of Gravity, and the Centroid.EXAMPLE 8.1 Centroid of a Volume.EXAMPLE 8.2 Center of Mass with Distributed Mass.EXAMPLE 8.3 Locating the Centroid of a Composite Volume.EXAMPLE 8.4 Finding the Centroid of an Area.EXAMPLE 8.5 Center of Mass.EXAMPLE 8.6 Centroid of a Built-Up Section.EXERCISES Distributed Force Acting on a Boundary.EXAMPLE 8.7 Beam with Complex Distribution of Line Loads.EXAMPLE 8.8 Slanted Surface with Nonuniform Distribution.EXAMPLE 8.9 Complex Line Load Distribution.EXAMPLE 8.10 Beam with Multiple Line Loads.EXAMPLE 8.11 Calculating Center of Pressure of a Complex Pressure Distribution.EXAMPLE 8.12 Rectangular Water Gate.EXERCISES Hydrostatic Pressure.EXAMPLE 8.13 Proof of Nondirectionality of Fluid Pressure.EXAMPLE 8.14 Proof That Hydrostatic Pressure Increases Linearly with Depth.EXAMPLE 8.15 Water Reservoir.EXAMPLE 8.16 Sloped Gate with Linear Distribution.EXAMPLE 8.17 Pressure Distribution Over a Curved Surface.EXAMPLE 8.18 Center of Buoyancy and Stability.EXERCISES Just the Facts.SYSTEM ANALYSIS (SA) EXERCISES.SA8.1 What Does It Take to Empty the Trash?SA8.2 Ballast in Submarines.SA8.3 How to Remove the Packages.SA8.4 The Freedom Ship.SA8.5 Center of Mass Calculations.SA8.6 Fighter Jet Design.CHAPTER 9: INTERNAL LOADS IN FRAMES, MACHINES, AND TRUSSES.9.1 Frame Analysis.EXAMPLE 9.1 Planar Frame Analysis.EXAMPLE 9.2 Internally Unstable Frame.EXAMPLE 9.3 Internally Unstable Frame with Friction.EXAMPLE 9.4 Nonplanar Frame Analysis.EXAMPLE 9.5 Determining Status of a Frame.EXAMPLE 9.6 Special Conditions in Frames.EXERCISES Machines.EXAMPLE 9.7 Force Multiplication.EXAMPLE 9.8 Analysis of a Toggle Clamp.EXAMPLE 9.9 Bicycle Brake.EXAMPLE 9.10 Analysis of a Gear Train.EXAMPLE 9.11 Analysis of a Bicycle Power Train.EXAMPLE 9.12 Analysis of a Pulley System with Bearing Friction.EXAMPLE 9.13 Analysis of a Gear Train with Friction.EXAMPLE 9.14 Rolling Resistance.EXERCISES Truss Analysis.EXAMPLE 9.15 Identify Systems as Trusses or Frames.EXAMPLE 9.16 Truss Analysis Using Method of Joints.EXAMPLE 9.17 Method of Sections (A).EXAMPLE 9.18 Method of Sections (B).EXAMPLE 9.19 Combination of Method of Joints and Method of Sections.EXAMPLE 9.20 Checking the Status of Planar Trusses.EXAMPLE 9.21 Status of Space Trusses.EXERCISES Just the Facts.SYSTEM ANALYSIS (SA) EXERCISES.SA9.1 The Marvelous Truss.SA9.2 A Self-Erecting Basketball Goal for the Reynolds Coliseum.SA9.3 Analysis of Bicycle Performance.SA9.4 Review of Chapter 2 Analysis.SA9.5 Designing a Bridge.SA9.6 Internal Loads in a Crane.SA9.7 A Heavy Load.CHAPTER 10: "OUT ON A LIMB" AND "HUNG OUTTO DRY": A LOOK AT INTERNAL LOADSIN BEAMS AND CABLES.10.1 Beams.EXAMPLE 10.1 Beam Identification.EXAMPLE 10.2 A Beam Within a Frame.EXAMPLE 10.3 Internal Loads in a Planar Beam (A).EXAMPLE 10.4 Internal Loads in a Planar Beam (B).EXAMPLE 10.5 Loads in a Nonplanar Beam.EXAMPLE 10.6 Shear, Moment, and Axial Force Diagram for a Simply Supported Beam.EXAMPLE 10.7 A Simple Beam.EXAMPLE 10.8 Beam Analysis.EXAMPLE 10.9 A Simply Supported Beam with an Overhang.EXAMPLE 10.10 Using Equations 10.3 (A, B, and C).EXAMPLE 10.11 Exploring Equation (10.4).EXERCISES Flexible Cables.EXAMPLE 10.12 Flexible Cable with Concentrated Loads.EXAMPLE 10.13 Catenary Curve.EXAMPLE 10.14 Catenary with Supports at Different Elevations.EXAMPLE 10.15 Loaded Cable (Uniformly).EXAMPLE 10.16 Uniformly Loaded Cable with Supports at Unequal Heights.EXAMPLE 10.17 Catenary versus Parabolic.EXERCISES Just the Facts.NOTES.SYSTEM ANALYSIS (SA) EXERCISES.SA10.1 Handle Design for the Money-Maker Plus Water Pump.SA10.2 Golden Gate Bridge Approximate Analysis 1.SA10.3 Golden Gate Bridge Approximate Analysis 2.SA10.4 Form Follows Function.SA10.5 Hoover Dam.SA10.6 How Much Load Does a Main Column Carry?APPENDIX A.A1 Selected Topics in Mathematics.A2 Physical Quantities.A3 Properties of Areas and Volumes.APPENDIX B. DRY FRICTION.EXERCISES.APPENDIX C. MOMENT OF INERTIA OF AREA.EXERCISES.INDEX.

Author Biography

Sheri D. Sheppard, Ph.D., is the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Senior Scholar principally responsible for the Preparations for the Professions Program (PPP) engineering study. She is an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1985. Besides teaching both undergraduate and graduate design-related classes at Stanford University, she conducts research on weld fatigue and impact failures, fracture mechanics, and applied finite element analysis. Dr. Sheppard was recently named co-principal investigator on a NSF grant to form the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE), along with faculty at the University of Washington, Colorado School of Mines, and Howard University. She was co-principal investigator with Professor Larry Leifer on a multi-university NSF grant that was critically looking at engineering undergraduate curriculum (Synthesis). In 1999, Sheri was named a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering(ASME) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Recently Sheri was awarded the 20 04 ASEE Chester F. Carlson Award in recognition of distinguished accomplishments in engineering education. Before coming to Stanford University, she held several positions in the automotive industry, including senior research engineering at Ford Motor Company's Scientific Research Lab. She also worked as a design consultant, providing companies with structural analysis expertise. In her spare time Sheri likes to build houses, hike, and travel. Benson H. Tongue, Ph.D. is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at University of California-Berkeley. He received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1988, and Currently teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in dynamics vibrations, and control theory. His research concentrates on the modeling and analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems and the control of both structural and acoustic systems. This work involves experimental, theoretical, and numerical analysis and has been directed toward helicopters, computer disk drives, robotic manipulators, and general structural systems. Most recently, he has been involved in a multidisciplinary stud of automated highways and has directed research aimed at understanding the nonlinear behavior of vehicles traveling in platoons and in devising controllers that optimize the platoon's behavior in the face of non-nominal operating conditions. His most recent research has involved in the active control of loudspeakers and biomechanical analysis of human fall dynamics. Dr. Tongue is the author of Principles of Vibration, a senior/first-year graduate-level textbook. He has served as Associate Technical Editor of the ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics and is currently a member of the ASME Committee on Dynamics of Structures and Systems. He is the recipient of the NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award, the Sigma Xi Junior Faculty award, and the Pi Tau Sigma Excellence in Teaching award. He serves as a reviewer for numerous journals and funding agencies and is the author of more than sixty publications. In his spare time Benson races his bikes up and down mountains, draws and paints, birdwatches, and creates latte art.
Release date NZ
January 18th, 2005
Country of Publication
United States
col. Illustrations
John Wiley & Sons Inc
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