This work defends the metaphysics of "internal realism", a view authored by Hilary Putnam, and seeks to build on its basis an immanent realistic position to resolve two conflicts: the conflict between realism and some forms of anti-realism, especially relativism which involves constructivism and subjectivism; and also between two forms of realism itself, namely transcendent and immanent. Contra transcendent realism, Chhanda Gupta rejects the absolute view of realities that: transcend our concept forming powers; transcend our cognitive abilities; and are said to have features by themselves, not as things appear to us. Contra relativism of the anti-realist stripe, Gupta defends conceptual reality without letting it drift towards constructivism and subjectivism. This general theory of realism minus absolutism, and relativism minus subjectivism and constructivism, may be seen to have a relevance for our moral and social image of the world by showing how pluralism can avoid the ills of absolutism without ushering in intellectual and moral anarchy.
Chhanda Gupta is professor of Philosophy at Jadavpur University, Calcutta. She is author of numerous journal articles and was a fellow of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research (1985-86) and a Fulbright Research Fellow at Harvard University in 1985 and 1995.