Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytical psychotherapy remain an unparalleled source of insights into the unconscious determinants and dimensions of psychological suffering. However, there is a worldwide debate, as to the most appropriate ways in which to carry out research into psychopathology and treatment, which remains true to the essence of the discipline. This volume presents the rationales, methods and findings of some of the main empirical studies. The methodological and scientific problems, and some sophisticated solutions, are illustrated with concrete research examples. The authors of this volume share the common aim to bridge the gap between practising therapists and researchers. They seek to further an interdisciplinary and public dialogue on psychoanalytic treatments, their specific goals, methods and contributions to the psychic health of our patients.