Mastering Public Speaking equips readers with a firm grounding in the "hows" and "whys" of public speaking by providing an ideal balance of theory and skills while placing important emphases on critiquing, ethics, and critical thinking. With this top-selling book, readers learn how to think critically as they choose speech topics, conduct research, organize content, select language, manage nervousness, and deliver speeches. "Theory into Practice" and "Try This," features help readers understand and apply concepts and strategies of public communication to enhance their speaking competence. Mastering Public Speaking adds interest and relevance to all aspects of the speech-making process.
Table of Contents
1. An Introduction to Public Speaking. Why Study Public Speaking? Personal Benefits Professional Benefits Try This: Assessing the Importance of Communication Public Benefits Definitions of Communication. Levels of Communication. Intrapersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication Group Communication Public Communication Mass Communication Elements of Communication. Speaker Message Listener Feedback Channel Environment Noise The Public Speaker as Critical Thinker. Theory into Practice: Thinking about Public Speaking Summary Exercises 2. The Ethics of Public Speaking. Definition of Ethics. Principles of Ethics. Try This: Developing a Code of Ethics Ethical Speaking. Speak Up about Topics You Consider Important Choose Topics That Promote Positive Ethical Values Speak to Benefit Your Listeners Use Truthful Supporting Material and Valid Reasoning Consider the Consequences of Your Words and Actions Strive to Improve Your Public Speaking Ethical Listening. Seek Exposure to Well-Informed Speakers Avoid Prejudging Speakers of Their Ideas Evaluate the Speaker's Logic and Credibility Beware of the Consequences of Not Listening Carefully Fair Use Guidelines. Plagiarism. Theory into Practice: Effective and Ethical Paraphrasing Summary Exercises 3. Speaking Confidently. Recognize That Speaker Nervousness Is Normal. Control Speaker Nervousness. Learn How to Build Speaker Confidence. Know How you React to Stress Ethical Decisions: Know Your Strengths and Weaknesses Speaking with Confidence Try This: Managing Nervous Energy Know Speech Principles Know that It Always Looks Worse from the Inside Know Your Speech Believe in Our Topic View Speech Making Positively Visualize Success Project Confidence Test Your Message Practice Your Delivery Theory into Practice: Gaining Perspective Prepare Your First Speech. Understand the Assignment Develop Your Speech Content Organize Your Speech Word your Speech Practice Your Speech Deliver Your Speech Evaluate Your Speech Summary Exercises 4. Responding to Speeches. The Importance of Listening. Listening vs. Hearing. Listening Is Intermittent Listening Is a Learned Skill Listening Is Active Listening Implies Using the Message Receives The Process of Listening. Speaking with Confidence Receive Select Interpret Evaluate Resolve Obstacles to Effective Listening. Physical Distractions Physiological Distractions Psychological Distractions Factual Distractions Semantic Distractions Promoting Better Listening. Desire to Listen Focus I the Message Listen for Main Ideas Understand the Speaker's Point of View Reinforce the Message Provide Feedback Listen with the Body Withhold Judgment Listen Critically Critiquing Speeches. Begin with a Positive Statement Target a Few Areas for Improvement Organize Your Comments Be Specific Be Honest but Tactful Personalize Your Comments Reinforce the Positive Ethical Decisions: Title to Come Problem-Solve the Negative Provide the Speaker with a Plan of Action End with a Positive Statement Theory into Practice: Critiquing a Classmate Acting on Criticism. Focus on What Your Critics Say, Not How They Say It Seek Clear and Specific Judgment Evaluate the Feedback Your Receive Develop a Plan of Action Try This: Critiquing Yourself Summary Exercises 5. Analyzing Your Audience. Recognize the Value of Audience Diversity. Analyze Your Audience Before the Speech. Analyze Audience Demographics Speaking with Confidence Analyze Audience Psychographics Analyze Audience Needs Analyze Specific Speaking Situations Ethical Decisions: Title to Come Theory into Practice: Using and Audience Questionnaire Analyze Your Audience during the Speech. Analyze Your Audience after the Speech Try This: Incorporating Questionnaire Results Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating a Speaker's Audience Analysis Exercises 6. Selecting Your Speech Topic. Generate Ideas. Self-Generated Topics Speaking with Confidence Audience-Generated Topics Occasion-Generated Topics Research-Generated Topics Theory into Practice: Selecting Your Topic. Try This: Using a Group to Select Your Topic Focus Your Topic. Ethical Decisions: Should Instructors Censor? Determine Your General Purpose. Speeches to Inform Speeches to Persuade Speeches to Entertain Formulate Your Specific Purpose. Word Your Thesis Statement. Develop Your Speech Title. Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating Titles Exercises 7. Researching Your Topic. Assess Your Personal Knowledge Theory into Practice: Developing Personal Speech Resources Develop Your Research Plan Collect Your Information Magazines and Journals Try This: Comparing Online Searches Newspapers Government Documents Books Reference Works Television and Radio Interviews Calling, Writing, and Emailing for Information Record Your Information What to Record How to Record Information Conclude Your Search Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating Research Exercises 8. Supporting Your Speech. Purposes of Supporting Materials. Clarity Vividness Credibility Types of Supporting Materials. Examples Definition Narration Comparison Contrast Statistics Testimony Tests of Evidence. Is the Evidence Quoted in Context? Is the Source of the Evidence an Expert? Is the Source of the Evidence Unbiased? Is the Evidence Relevant to the Point Being made? Is the Evidence Specific? Is the Evidence Sufficient to Prove the Point? Ethical Decisions: Biased Sources: To Use or Not to Use Is the Evidence Timely? Evaluating Electronic Information. Purpose Expertise Objectivity Accuracy Timeliness Try This: Evaluating Internet Sources Citing Your Sources. Theory into Practice: Information for Oral Footnotes Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating Evidence Exercises 9. Organizing the Body of Your Speech. Formulate an Organizing Question. Divide the Speech into Key Ideas. Topical Division Chronological Division Spatial Division Speaking with Confidence Causal Division Pro-Con Division Mnemonic or Gimmick Division Problem-Solution Division Need-Plan Division Develop the Key Ideas. Signpost the Idea State the Idea Support the Idea Summarize the Idea Theory into Practice: Applying the 4 S's Connect the Key Ideas. Try This: Developing One Key Idea Ethical Decisions: Crunch Time Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating Organization Exercises 10. Introducing and Concluding Your Speech. Organize the Introduction of the Speech. Get the Attention of Your Audience Speaking with Confidence State Your Topic Ethical Decisions: Revealing vs. Concealing Your Purpose Establish the Importance of Your Topic Establish Your Credibility to Speak on Your Topic Preview Your Key Ideas Try This: Developing Introductions Organize the Conclusion of the Speech. Summarize Your Key Ideas Activate Audience Response Provide Closure Theory into Practice: Outward Method of Speech Development Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating Introductions Exercises 11. Outlining Your Speech. Functions of Outlining. Tests Scope of Content Tests Logical Relation of Parts Tests Relevance of Supporting Ideas Checks Balance of Speech Serves as Delivery Notes Principles of Outlining. Singularity Consistency Speaking with Confidence Adequacy Uniformity Parallelism Stages of Outlining. The Working Outline Theory into Practice: Visual Brainstorming Try This: Developing a Working Outline The Formal Outline Sample Outline: Perfect (ly Simple) Design The Speaking Outline Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating a Speech Outline Exercises 12. Wording Your Speech. Functions of Language. Communicate Ideas Send Messages about User Strengthen Social Bonds Serve as Instrument of Play Check Language Use Speaking with Confidence Principles of Effective Language Use. Use language Correctly Use language Clearly Use language Vividly Ethical Decisions: Doublespeak or Clearspeak Use Language Inclusively Try This: Becoming an Inclusive Speaker Use Oral Style Theory into Practice: Keys to Effective Oral Style Summary Practice Critique: Analyzing Language Use in a Powerful Speech Exercises 13. Delivering Your Speech. Principles of Nonverbal Communication. Speaking with Confidence Methods of Delivery. Speaking Impromptu Speaking from Memory Speaking from Manuscript Speaking Extemporaneously Qualities of Effective Delivery. Elements of Vocal Delivery. Rate and Pause Volume Pitch and Inflection Voice Quality Articulation and Pronunciation Elements of Physical Delivery. Appearance Theory into Practice: Dressing for Address Posture Facial Expression Eye Contact Movement Gestures Try This: Practicing Your Delivery Summary Practice Critique: Pairing Gestures and Movements with Words Exercises 14. Using Presentational Aids. The Importance of Using Presentational Aids. Increases Message Clarity Reinforces Message Impact Increases Speaker Dynamism Enhances Speaker Confidence Types of Presentational Aids. Objects Graphics Theory into Practice: Designing Transparencies and Slides Film and Video Handouts Audio and Other Aids Strategies for Using Presentational Aids. Before the Speech Try This: Planning Presentational Aids for the Classroom During the Speech Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating Presentational Aids Exercises 15. Speaking to Inform. Characteristics of a Speech to Inform. Informative Speech Topics. Speeches about People Speeches about Objects Speeches about Places Speeches about Activities and Events Speeches about Processes Speeches about Concepts Speeches about Conditions Speeches about Issues Try This: Targeting an Informative Topic Theory into Practice: Organizing Informative Speeches Guidelines for Speaking to Inform. Stress Your Informative Purpose Be Specific Be Clear Be Accurate Limit Your Ideas and Supporting Materials Be Relevant Be Objective Use Appropriate Organization Use Appropriate Forms of Support Use Effective Delivery Annotated Sample Speech: The Amish: Seeking to Lose the Self. Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating and Comparing Two Informative Student Speeches Exercises 16. The Strategy of Persuasion. The Importance of Persuasion. A Definition of Persuasion. Types of Influence. Change Instill Intensify Theory into Practice: The Pyramid of Persuasion. Types of Persuasive Speeches. Speeches to Convince Speeches to Actuate Speeches to Inspire Persuasive Speaking Strategies. Establish Your Credibility Try This: Assessing and Building Your Credibility Focus Your Goals Connect with Your Listeners Organize Your Arguments Support Your Ideas Enhance Your Emotional Appeals Summary Practice Critique: Analyzing Persuasive Appeals in a Powerful Speech Exercises 17. The Structure of Persuasion. Making and Refuting Arguments Steps of an Argument Refuting an Argument Types of Argument Argument by Example Argument by Analogy Argument by Cause Argument by Deduction Argument by Authority Theory into Practice: Testing Your Arguments Fallacies of Argument. Hasty Generalization False Analogy Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Slippery Slope Red Herring Appeal to Tradition False Dilemma False Authority Bandwagon Ad Hominem Selecting Propositions for Persuasive Speeches. Characteristics of Propositions Types of Propositions Try This: Formulating Your Persuasive Proposition Monroe's Motivated Sequence. Annotated Sample Speech: Diploma Mills. Summary Practice Critique: Identifying a Claim and Evaluating Evidence Exercises 18. Speaking on Special Occasions. The Speech of Introduction. The Speech of Presentation. The Acceptance Speech. The Speech of Tribute. The Speech to Entertain. The Impromptu Speech. The Question-Answer Period. Try This: Anticipating and Answering Listener's Questions The Videotaped Speech. Theory into Practice: Appearing on Video Summary Practice Critique: Evaluating a Speech of Tribute Exercises 19. Speaking in and as a Group. Small Group Communication and Public Speaking. Small Groups Defined. Types of Groups. Try This: Analyzing Your Group Group Discussion and Decision Making. Principles of Group Decision Making The Process of Group Decision Making The Responsibilities of Group Members The Responsibilities of Group Leaders The Group Presentation. Formats for the Presentation Preparing a Groups Presentation Theory into Practice: Developing a Presentational Style Summary Practice Critique: Analyzing a Group's Interactions Exercises Appendix: Sample Speeches. Renaissance Fairs, Melissa Janoske Critique of Renaissance Fairs, Donika K. Patel Steganography, Tiffanie K. Petrin A Sign of the Times, Jared J. Johnston How Old Is He Anyway? Aging the Whitetail Buck, Darla Goodrich Persuasive Speech, Gene Fox Speech of Tribute, Edwin C. Anderson, Jr. I Have a Dream, Martin Luther King Jr.