We start with an general overview of the key principles and technologies of optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) that appeared over almost three decades. We then address our new OCDMA communication technique we referred to as optical fast frequency hopping- (OFFH-) CDMA. We define the fundamental principles of the OFFH- CDMA and propose a set of implementation solutions. We have found, that multiple Bragg gratings (MBG) offer the most elegant method to implement the OFFH- CDMA encoding/decoding functions. Theoretical and computer simulation analysis have verified and demonstrated the effectiveness of the new principle. In addition, we propose new encoding/decoding architectures that enable a network to accommodate subscribers with different data rates and performance levels. We also propose and investigate a version of the system especially appropriate for communications in hostile temperature and stability conditions. Finally, we build an OFFH-CDMA experimental setup that includes sixteen encoders and four programmable decoders and demonstrate successful encoding/decoding operation in various communications scenarios.