Non-Fiction Books:

Expiratory Droplet Exposure Between Individuals in a Ventilated Room

Sorry, this product is not currently available to order

Here are some other products you might consider...

Expiratory Droplet Exposure Between Individuals in a Ventilated Room




Customer rating

Click to share your rating 0 ratings (0.0/5.0 average) Thanks for your vote!

Share this product

Expiratory Droplet Exposure Between Individuals in a Ventilated Room by Li Liu
Sorry, this product is not currently available to order


This dissertation, "Expiratory Droplet Exposure Between Individuals in a Ventilated Room" by Li, Liu, 刘荔, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Interpersonal transport of expiratory droplets and droplet nuclei constitutes a prerequisite for the transmission of pathogens as well as the transmission of respiratory diseases. This study modeled the physical process of interpersonal transport of droplets and droplet nuclei in a ventilated room. The impacts of a number of parameters in three length scales and three corresponding physical processes were analyzed, including dispersion and evaporation of droplets/droplet nuclei at 1 to 100 μm, human exhalation flows and body plumes at 0.1 to 1 m, and the indoor environment at 1 to 10 m. The strong hygroscopicity of the solutes in the droplet is capable of keeping the droplet with an equilibrium size in humid air, larger than that of a dried particle. Mathematical models were developed to predict the droplet nucleus size in both dry air and humid air, by simplifying the composition of one expiratory droplet to NaCl solution and suspended spherical particles. For a droplet with an initial diameter of 100 μm, initial NaCl concentration of 0.9%, and initial solids ratio of 1.8%, the droplet nucleus size was estimated to be 42 μm in an ambient relative humidity of 90% (25C), which is 30% larger than it was in a relative humidity of 30% (25C). A numerical model was also developed to predict droplet evaporation and dispersion in a constant turbulent buoyant jet. Droplets with initial sizes larger than 80 μm were predicted to deposit on the floor at a distance of 1.25 m ( 1.7 m for 60 μm) away from the mouth, while droplets with initial sizes less than 40 μm travelled to the end of the jet. A series of experiments was conducted to assess the characteristics of human exhalation airflows and thermal plume, using a full-scale test room and a breathing thermal manikin. The impacts of the ventilation system were illustrated by comparing the velocity distribution of the exhalation airflows and airflows induced by thermal plume. Further experiments employing two breathing thermal manikins were carried out to evaluate the interpersonal transport of the expiratory contaminants that were simulated by tracer gas. When the two manikins with the same heights were standing face to face at a mutual distance of 0.8 m, the exhalation airflows from the mouth of the source manikin could directly travel into the breathing region of the susceptible manikin, resulting in a high exposure. The high exposure decreased sharply with an increase in the mutual distance from 0.5 m to 1.0 m. Between 1.0 m to 3.0 m, the exposure by the susceptible manikin remained at a low and constant level. Numerical simulations considering droplet evaporation and droplet nucleus sizes were carried out; and the impacts of the parameters of droplet initial size, humidity, vicinity, ventilation conditions and synchronization of exhalation were evaluated. Fine droplets and droplet nuclei were predicted to travel toward the upper part of the test room, whereas large droplets tend to be deposited on the floor. With a high relative humidity, 95%, most of the droplets were deposited on the floor within 16 seconds. Meanwhile, all of the droplets evaporated to droplet nuclei and remained suspended in the air when the relative humidity was 35%. Mixing ventilation that supplied fresh air with a ventilation rate of 5.6 h-1 resulted in drafts and strong turbulence, which made droplets and droplet nuclei disperse
Release date NZ
January 26th, 2017
Created by
Country of Publication
United States
colour illustrations
Open Dissertation Press
Product ID

Customer reviews

Nobody has reviewed this product yet. You could be the first!

Write a Review

Marketplace listings

There are no Marketplace listings available for this product currently.
Already own it? Create a free listing and pay just 9% commission when it sells!

Sell Yours Here

Help & options

  • If you think we've made a mistake or omitted details, please send us your feedback. Send Feedback
  • If you have a question or problem with this product, visit our Help section. Get Help
Filed under...

Buy this and earn 847 Banana Points