The third edition of Evolutionary Psychology continues to be the premier text for the burgeoning field of evolutionary psychology, and this major update contains nearly 400 new references.
Table of Contents
I. FOUNDATIONS OF EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY 1. Scientific Movements Leading to Evolutionary Psychology Landmarks in the History of Evolutionary Psychology Evolution before Darwin Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection Darwin's Theory of Sexual Selection The Role of Natural and Sexual Selection in Evolutionary Theory The Modern Synthesis: Genes and Particulate Inheritance The Ethology Movement The Inclusive Fitness Revolution Clarifying Adaptation and Natural Selection Trivers's Seminal Theories The Sociobiology Controversy Common Misunderstandings About Evolutionary Theory Misunderstanding 1. Human Behavior is Genetically Determined Misunderstanding 2. If It's Evolutionary, Then We Can't Change It Misunderstanding 3. Current Mechanisms are Optimally Designed Milestones in the Origins of Modern Humans BOX 1.1 Out of Africa versus Multiregional Origins Landmarks in the Field of Psychology Freud's psychoanalytic theory Williams James and the Psychology of Instincts The Rise of Behaviorism The Astonishing Discoveries of Cultural Variability The Garcia effect, Prepared fears, and Decline of Behaviorism Peering into the Black Box: The Cognitive Revolution Summary Suggested Readings 2. The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology The Origins of Human Nature Three Theories of the Origins of Adaptive Mechanisms The Three Products of Evolution Levels of Evolutionary Analysis in Evolutionary Psychology The Core of Human Nature: Fundamentals of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms All Species Have a Nature Definition of an Evolved Psychological Mechanism Important Properties of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms Methods for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses Comparing Different Species Comparing Males and Females Comparing Individuals within a Species Comparing the Same Individuals in Different Contexts Experimental Methods Sources of Data for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses Archeological Records Data From Hunter-Gatherer Societies Observations Self-Reports Life-History Data and Public Records Human Products Transcending the Limitations of Single Data Sources Identifying the Adaptive Problems Guidance of Modern Evolutionary Theory Guidance from Knowledge of Universal Human Structures Guidance from Traditional Societies Guidance from the Paleoarcheology and Paleoanthropology Guidance from Current Mechanisms Guidance from Task Analysis Organization of Adaptive Problems Summary Suggested Readings II. PROBLEMS OF SURVIVAL 3. Survival Problems and Solutions Food Acquisition and Selection Food Selection in Rats Food Selection in Humans Why Humans Like Spices: The Antimicrobial Hypothesis Why Humans Like to Drink Alcohol: An Evolutionary Hangover? Sickness in Pregnant Women: The Embryo Protection Hypothesis The Hunting Hypothesis The Gathering Hypothesis Comparing the Hunting and Gathering Hypotheses The Scavenging Hypothesis Adaptations to Gathering and Hunting: Sex Differences in Specific Spatial Abilities Finding a Place to Live: Shelter and Landscape Preferences The Savanna Hypothesis Combating Predators and Other Environmental Dangers: Fears, Phobias, Anxieties, and "Evolutionary Memories" Most Common Human Fears Children's Anti-Predator Adaptations BOX 3.1 The Adaptive Conservation Hypothesis of Fears Combating Disease Are Humans Programmed to Die? The Theory of Senescence The Puzzle of Suicide Summary Suggested Readings III. CHALLENGES OF SEX AND MATING 4. Women's Long-Term Mating Strategies Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Mate Preferences Parental Investment and Sexual Selection Mate Preferences as Evolved Psychological Mechanisms The Content of Women's Mate Preferences Preference for Economic Resources Preference for Good Financial Prospects Preference for High Social Status Preference for Older Men Preference for Ambition and Industriousness Preference for Dependability and Stability Preference for Size and Strength Preference for Good Health and Physical Appearance Love and Commitment Preference for Willingness to Invest in Children Preference for Similarity Additional Mate Preferences Context Effects of Women's Preferences Effects of Women's Personal Resources on Mate Preferences Effects of Temporal Context on Women's Mate Preferences Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Mate Preferences Effects of Women's Mate Value on Mate Preferences How Women's Mate Preferences Affect Actual Mating Behavior Women's Responses to Men's Personal Ads Women's Marriages to Men High in Occupational Status Women's Marriages to Men Who are Older Effects of Women's Preferences on Men's Behavior BOX 4.1 What About Lesbian Sexual Orientation? Summary Suggested Readings 5. Men's Long-Term Mating Strategies Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Men's Mate Preferences Why Men Might Benefit from Commitment and Marriage The Problem of Assessing Women's Fertility or Reproductive Value The Content of Men's Mate Preferences Preference for Youth Evolved Standards of Beauty Preference for Body Fat and the Critical Waist-to-Hip Ratio Sex Differences in the Importance of Physical Appearance Do Men Have a Preference for Ovulating Women? Solutions to the Problem of Paternity Uncertainty Context Effects on Men's Mating Behavior BOX 5.2 Homosexual Orientation Men in Positions of Power Context Effects from Viewing Attractive Models Testosterone and Men's Mating Strategies The Necessities and Luxuries of Mate Preferences Effect of Men's Mate Preferences Affect Actual Mating Behavior Men's Responses to Women's Personal Ads Age Preferences and Marital Decisions Effect of Men's Mate Preferences on Women's Competition Tactics Summary Suggested Readings 6. Short-Term Sexual Strategies Theories of Men's Short-Term Mating Adaptive Benefits for Men of Short-Term Mating Potential Costs of Short-Term Mating for Men BOX 6.1 Functions Versus Beneficial Effects of Short-Term Mating Adaptive Problems Men Must Solve When Pursuing Short-Term Mating Evidence for an Evolved Short-Term Mating Psychology Physiological Evidence for Short-Term Mating Psychological Evidence for Short-Term Mating Behavioral Evidence for Short-Term Mating Women's Short-Term Mating Evidence for Women's Short-Term Mating Hypotheses About Adaptive Benefits to Women of Short-Term Mating Costs for Women of Short-Term Mating Empirical Tests of Hypothesized Benefits to Women Context Effects on Short-Term Mating Individual Differences in Short-Term Mating Other Contexts Likely to Affect Short-Term Mating Summary Suggested Readings IV. CHALLENGES OF PARENTING AND KINSHIP 7. Principles of Parenting Why Do Mothers Provide Parental Care More Than Fathers? The Paternity Uncertainty Hypothesis The Mating Opportunity Cost Hypothesis An Evolutionary Perspective on Parental Care Genetic Relatedness to Offspring Offspring's Ability to Convert Parental Care Into Reproductive Success Alternative Uses of Resources Available for Investment in Children The Theory of Parent-Offspring Conflict Mother-Offspring Conflict in Utero The Oedipal Complex Revisited BOX 7.1 Killing Parents and Asymmetry of Valuing Parents and Children Summary Suggested Readings 8. Problems of Kinship Theory and Implications of Inclusive Fitness Hamilton's Rule Theoretical Implications of Hamilton's Rule Empirical Findings That Support the Implications of Inclusive Fitness Theory Alarm Calling in Ground Squirrels Kin Recognition and Kin Classification in Humans Patterns of Helping in the Lives of Los Angeles Women Life-or-Death Helping among Humans Genetic Relatedness and Emotional Closeness: Is Blood Thicker Than Water? Kinship and Survival Vigilance over Kin's Romantic Relationships Kinship and Stress Patterns of Inheritance--Who Leaves Wealth to Whom? Grandparental Investment BOX 8.1 Investment by Aunts and Uncles A Broader Perspective on the Evolution of the Family The Dark Side of Families Summary Suggested Readings V. PROBLEMS OF GROUP LIVING 9. Cooperative Alliances The Evolution of Cooperation The Problem of Altruism Theory of Reciprocal Altruism Tit for Tat BOX 9.1 Strategies for Promoting Cooperation Examples of Cooperation in Nature Food sharing in Vampire Bats Chimpanzee Politics Cooperation among Humans Social Contract Theory The Detection of Prospective Altruists The psychology of friendship Costs and Benefits of Friendship Cooperative Coalitions Summary Suggested Readings 10. Aggression and Warfare Aggression as a Solution to Adaptive Problems Co-opt the Resources of Others Defend against Attack Inflict Costs on Intrasexual Rivals Negotiate Status and Power Hierarchies Deter Rivals from Future Aggression Deter Long-Term Mates from Sexual Infidelity The Context-Specificity of Aggression Why Are Men More Violently Aggressive Than Women Empirical Evidence for Distinct Adaptive Patterns of Aggression Evidence for Sex Differences in Same-Sex Aggression Contexts Triggering Men's Aggression against Men Contexts Triggering Women's Aggression against Women Contexts Triggering Men's Aggression against Women Contexts Triggering Women's Aggression against Men Warfare BOX 10.1 Yanomamo Warfare Do Humans Have Evolved Homicide Mechanisms? Summary Suggested Readings 11. Conflict between the Sexes Strategic Interference Theory Conflict about the Occurrence and Timing of Sex Conflict over Sexual Access Jealous Conflict Sex Differences in Jealousy From Vigilance to Violence: Tactics of Mate Retention Sex Differences in the Use of Mate Retention Tactics Contexts Influencing Intensity of Mate Retention Effort Violence toward Partners Conflict over Access to Resources Causes of Resource Inequality: Women's Mate Preferences and Men's Competitive Tactics BOX 11.1 Are All Men United with Other Men to Control Women? Summary Suggested Readings 12. Status, Prestige, and Social Dominance The Emergence of Dominance Hierarchies Dominance and Status in Non-Human Animals Evolutionary Theories of Dominance and Status An Evolutionary Theory of Sex Differences in Status Striving Dominance Theory Social Attention-Holding Theory Determinants of Dominance BOX 12.1 Facial Dominance Self-Esteem as a Status Tracking Mechanism Strategies of Submissiveness Summary Suggested Readings V. PROBLEMS OF GROUP LIVING 13. Toward a Unified Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary Cognitive Psychology Problem Solving: Heuristics, Biases, and Judgment Under Uncertainty The Evolution of Language Evolutionary Social Psychology Capitalizing on Evolutionary Theories About Social Phenomena The Evolution of Moral Emotions Evolutionary Developmental Psychology Theory of mind modules Attachment and Life History Strategies Evolutionary Personality Psychology Alternative Niche Picking or Strategic Specialization Adaptive Self-Assessment of Heritable Qualities Frequency-Dependent Adaptive Strategies Evolutionary Clinical Psychology Causes of Mechanism Failure Evolutionary Insights into Problems Erroneously Thought to be Dysfunctions Evolutionary Cultural Psychology Evoked Culture Transmitted Culture The Evolution of Art, Fiction, Movies, and MusicToward a Unified Psychology Suggested Readings Bibliography Index
David M. Buss received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkley in 1981. He began his career in academics at Harvard, later moving to the University of Michigan before accepting his current position as Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas. His primary research interests include human sexuality, mating strategies, conflict between the sexes, homicide, stalking, and sexual victimization. The author of more than 200 scientific articles and 6 books, Buss has won numerous awards including the American Psychological Association (APA) Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology (1988), the APA G. Stanley Hall Lectureship (1990), the APA Distinguished Scientist Lecturer Award (2001), and the Robert W. Hamilton Book Award (2000) for the first edition of Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. He is also the editor of the first comprehensive Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology (2005, Wiley). He enjoys extensive cross-cultural research collaborations and lectures widely within the United States and abroad.