This monograph examines intertextual connections to Ezekiel found in John and in Second Temple literature. Chapter One describes the method used in the monograph, described as "comparative intertextuality." Intertextual connections between Ezekiel and later Second Temple works are compared with intertextual connections between Ezekiel and the Gospel of John. Two chapters are devoted to understanding how various works in the Second Temple period make use of Ezekiel. The DSS contain many allusions to a number of Ezekiel's oracles, while other Second Temple works refer to only a few of Ezekiel's oracles, and those only rarely. In each case, Manning examines the evidence for the presence of the allusions, studies the implied interpretational methods, and comments on the function of the allusion in advancing the author's ideas. Two chapters analyze John's allusions to Ezekiel: the good shepherd, the vine, the opened heavens, imagery from the "dry bones" vision, and water symbolism. The monograph concludes with observations on how John's use of Ezekiel fits within the use of Ezekiel in Second Temple literature.
John shares certain tendencies with other literature, such as the combination of allusions from related OT passages, the resumption of allusions later in the same work, and careful attention to the original context of the allusion. John has a few unique tendencies: he alludes to all five of Ezekiel's "oracles of hope" and primarily uses that imagery to describe the giving of the Holy Spirit and new life through Jesus.
Gary T. Manning Jr. is an Assistant Professor of New Testament and Director of the Graduate School in Honolulu, Hawaii.