The Fourth Edition of this highly acclaimed book expands on previous editions with coverage of newly emerged theories and empirical updates supported by a significant amount of new references. Criminological Theory provides coverage of the latest theories in the field without diminishing the presentation of classic analysis. Major theoretical perspectives that have developed from both recent critical work and traditional schools, together with practical applications, compel the reader to apply theories to the contemporary social milieu.
Table of Contents
1. The Context and Consequences of Theory Theory in Social Context Theory and Policy: Ideas Have Consequences Context, Theory, and Policy: Plan of the Book 2. The Search for the "Criminal Man" Spiritualism The Classical School: Criminal as Calculator The Positivist School: Criminal as Determined The Consequence of Theory: Policy Implications Conclusion 3. Rejecting Individualism: The Chicago School The Chicago School of Criminology: Theory in Context Shaw and McKay's Theory of Juvenile Delinquency Sutherland's Theory of Differential Association The Chicago School's Criminological Legacy The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications 4. Crime in American Society: Anomie and Strain Theories Merton's Strain Theory Status Discontent and Delinquency The Criminological Legacy of Strain Theory The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications Conclusion 5. Society as Insulation: The Origins of Control Theory Forerunners of Control Theory Early Control Theories Reckless's Containment Theory Sykes and Matza: Neutralization and Drift Theory Control Theory in Context 6. The Complexity of Control: Hirschi's Two Theories and Beyond Hirschi's First Theory: Social Bonds and Delinquency Hirschi's Second Theory: Self-Control and Crime The Complexity of Control The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications Conclusion 7. The Irony of State Intervention: Labeling Theory The Social Construction of Crime Labeling as Criminogenic: Creating Career Criminals The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications Extending Labeling Theory Conclusion 8. Social Power and the Construction of Crime: Conflict Theory Forerunners of Conflict Theory Theory in Context: The Turmoil of the 1960s Varieties of Conflict Theory Consequences of Conflict Theory Conclusion 9. New Directions in Critical Theory Modernity and Postmodernity Postmodern Criminological Thought: The End of Grand Narratives? Looking Back at Early British and European Influences Left Realism The New Criminology Revisited The New European Criminology Cultural Criminology Convict Criminology Conclusion 10. The Gendering of Criminology: Feminist Theory Background Prefeminist Pioneers and Themes New Questions Emerge From Women's Emancipation to Patriarchy Varieties of Feminist Thought Masculinities and Crime: Doing Gender Gendering Criminology The Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender Postmodernist Feminism Consequences of the Diversity of Feminist Perspectives Some Implications of Feminist Criminology for Corrections Conclusion 11. Bringing Punishment Back In: Conservative Criminology Context: The United States of the 1980s and Early 1990s Varieties of Conservative Theory Crime and Human Nature: Wilson and Herrnstein Crime and The Bell Curve: Herrnstein and Murray The Criminal Mind Choosing to Be Criminal: Crime Pays Crime and Moral Poverty Broken Windows: The Tolerance of Public Disorganization Consequences of Conservative Theory: Policy Implications Conclusion 12. Choosing Crime in Everyday Life: Routine Activity and Rational Choice Theories Routine Activity Theory: Opportunities and Crime Rational Choice Theory Perceptual Deterrence Theory Conclusion 13. The Search for the "Criminal Man" Revisited: Biological and Biosocial Theories Evolutionary Theories: Darwin Revisited Biosocial Theories Biochemical Theories Biological Risk Factors/Protective Factors Environmental Toxins The Consequences of Biological Theories: Policy Implications Conclusion 14. The Development of Criminals: Life-Course Theories Integrated Theories of Crime Life-Course Criminology: Continuity and Change Criminology in Crisis: Gottfredson and Hirschi Revisited Patterson's Social-Interactional Developmental Model Moffitt's Life-Course-Persistent/Adolescence-Limited Theory Sampson and Laub: Social Bond Theory Revisited Rethinking Crime: Cognitive Theories of Desistance The Consequences of Theory: Policy Implications Conclusion
Richard A. Ball is Professor of Administration of Justice at Penn State-Fayette and former Program Head for Administration of Justice for the 12-campus Commonwealth College of Penn State. He is former Chair of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at West Virginia University, and received his doctorate from Ohio State University in 1965. He has authored several monographs on community power structure and correctional issues and co-edited a monograph and a book on white-collar crime. He has authored or coauthored approximately 100 articles and book chapters, including articles in the American Journal of Corrections, American Sociological Review, The American Sociologist, British Journal of Social Psychiatry, Correctional Psychology, Crime and Delinquency, Criminology, Federal Probation, International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, International Social Science Review, Journal of Communication, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Journal of Small Business Management, Journal of Psychohistory, Justice Quarterly, Northern Kentucky Law Review, Qualitative Sociology, Rural Sociology, Social Forces, Social Problems, Sociological Focus, Sociological Symposium, Sociology and Social Welfare, Sociology of Work and Occupations, Urban Life, Victimology, and World Futures. He is coauthor of House Arrest and Correctional Policy: Doing Time at Home (1988). J. Robert Lilly is Regents Professor of Sociology/Criminology and Adjunct Professor of Law at Northern Kentucky University. His research interests include the pattern of capital crimes committed by U.S. soldiers during World War II, the "commercial-corrections complex," juvenile delinquency, house arrest and electronic monitoring, criminal justice in the People's Republic of China, the sociology of law, and criminological theory. He has published in Criminology, Crime & Delinquency, Social Problems, Legal Studies Forum, Northern Kentucky Law Review, Journal of Drug Issues, The New Scholar, Adolescence, Qualitative Sociology, Federal Probation, International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, Justice Quarterly, and The Howard Journal. He has coauthored several articles and book chapters with Richard A. Ball, and he is coauthor of House Arrest and Correctional Policy: Doing Time at Home (1988). In 2003 he published La Face Cachee Des GI's: Les Viols commis par des soldats amercains en France, en Angleterre et en Allemange pendat la Second Guerre mondial. It was translated into Italian and published (2004) as Stupppi Di Guerra: Le Violenze Commesse Dai Soldati Americani in Gran Bretagna, Francia e Germania 1942--1945. It was be published in English in 2007. The latter work is part of his extensive research on patterns of crimes and punishments experienced by U.S. soldiers in WWII in the European Theater of War. The Hidden Face of the Liberators, a made-for-TV documentary by Program 33 (Paris), was broadcast in Switzerland and France in March 2006 and was a finalist at the International Television Festival of Monte Carlo in 2007. He is the past treasurer of the American Society of Criminology. In 1988, he was a visiting professor in the School of Law at Leicester Polytechnic and was a visiting scholar at All Soul's College in Oxford, England. In 1992, he became a visiting professor at the University of Durham in England. He is currently coeditor of The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. Francis T. Cullen is Distinguished Research Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati, where he also holds a joint appointment in sociology. He received a Ph.D. (1979) in sociology and education from Columbia University. Professor Cullen has published over 275 works in the areas of criminological theory, corrections, white-collar crime, public opinion, and the measurement of sexual victimization. He is author of Rethinking Crime and Deviance Theory: The Emergence of a Structuring Tradition and is coauthor of Reaffirming Rehabilitation, Corporate Crime Under Attack: The Ford Pinto Case and Beyond, Criminology, Combating Corporate Crime: Local Prosecutors at Work, Unsafe in the Ivory Tower: The Sexual Victimization of College Women, and Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. He also is coeditor of Contemporary Criminological Theory, Offender Rehabilitation: Effective Correctional Intervention, Criminological Theory: Past to Present-Essential Readings, Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory, The Origins of American Criminology, and the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory. Professor Cullen is a Past President of the American Society of Criminology and of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.