'It is no exaggeration to say that de Mooij's theory and findings as presented in this book might serve as a basis and a source of inspiration for an emerging sociology of translation, not only in terms of modelling and empirical research, but also for didactic purposes. Her model and findings have the potential to offer invaluable input into the practice of translation at large, rather than just the translation of advertising, as they may facilitate the discovery of deep-level cultural factors underlying discoursal practices' - "The Translator". It is increasingly understood that consumers worldwide are not the same. This book is the first that provides empirical evidence that differences in consumer behaviour across countries are not decreasing but increasing. It points at the increased need to understand culture to explain the differences because all aspects of consumer behaviour are culture-bound.Culture is not just an environmental factor, it is integrated in all of human behaviour, and thus in consumer behaviour. This book presents a model of consumer behaviour in which culture is integrated. The structure of the book follows this model.
After reviewing the myths of global marketing the concept of culture and models of culture are explored, and empirical evidence is provided of convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour. After that the various psychological and sociological aspects of human behaviour are covered that are used for explaining consumer behaviour. Examples are the concept of self and personality and the various social and mental processes such as group-influence, motivation, emotion, perception, information processing.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Global consumers in a global village? The global village Globalization and global consumer culture Converging and diverging consumer behavior Post scarcity societies and the culture paradigm Global communities? New media Universalism Lack of a sense of history Branding and advertising: From global to multi-local Consumer behavior theory across cultures Chapter 2: Values and culture Values Values are enduring Values in marketing Culture defined Comparing cultures Dimensions of culture Hofstede: Five dimensions of national culture Schwartz: Seven value types or motivational domains Comparing models Culture relationships Chapter 3: Convergence and Divergence in Consumer Behavior Convergence theory Modernization Convergence: Macro- and micro-level Convergence-divergence in consumer behavior National wealth as an explaining variable Over time culture replaces income as an explanatory variable With increased wealth cultural values become manifest Other measurement variables Urbanization Population density Education Age distribution Social classs Ethnicity Climate Consumer behavior, national wealth and culture Chapter 4: The Consumer: Attributes A model of cross-cultural consumer behavior Personality The brand personality concept The concept of self Implications for marketing, branding and advertising Self-enhancement and self-esteem Personal traits Brand personality traits Identity and image Corporate identity and brand identity Attitude Attitude and behavior Lifestyle Chapter 5: Social processes Motivation, needs and drives Culture-related consumer needs and motives Emotion Emotions in advertising Group processes Reference groups Opinion leaders Chapter 6: Mental processes Cognition and cognitive styles Learning and socialization Cognition and affect Language Perception The creative process Attribution Locus of control Information processing Involvement theory Communication and culture Communication styles Advertising styles Decision-making Chapter 7: Consumer behavior domains Product acquisition, usage and ownership Food and beverages Non-durable household products Non-durable personal goods Clothing and footwear Household appliances Consumer electronics Luxury articles Communication technology Computers and the Internet Cars Leisure Finance Shopping and buying behavior Complaining behavior Brand loyalty Diffusion of innovations Media behavior Responses to marketing-communications Chapter 8: Applications to global marketing and adverting Product-market development across countries Branding strategies Retailing Segmenting international markets Cross-cultural values and lifestyle studies Academic cross-cultural studies Research techniques and methods across cultures Predicting market success The purpose of advertising Advertising research The future of global advertising Appendix 1 GNP/capita 2001 (US$) and Hofstede country scores for 64 countries Appendix 2 Data sources
Marieke de Mooij Ph.D. (Netherlands), is a consultant in cross cultural communications, and visiting professor at various universities, such as the University of Navarra in Spain, Vaasa University in Finland and European University Viadrina in Germany. In the Netherlands she teaches at a post graduate course of Groningen University (Academie voor Management). She is the author of several publications on the influence of culture on marketing and advertising.