Discovered over a century ago, the centrosome is the major microtubule organizing center of the animal cell. It is a tiny organelle of surprising structural complexity. Over the last few years our understanding of the structure and composition of centrosomes has greatly advanced, and the demonstration of frequent centrosome anomalies in most common human tumors has sparked additional interest in the role of this organelle in a broader scientific community. The centrosome controls the number and distribution of microtubules - a major element of the cell cytoskeleton - and hence influences many important cellular functions and properties. These include cell shape, polarity, and motility, as well as the intracellular transport and positioning of various organelles. Of particular interest, centrosome function is critical for chromosome segregation and cell division. This book is meant to summarize our current knowledge of the structure, function and evolution of microtubule organizing centers, primarily centrosomes. Emphasis is on the role of these organelles in development and disease (particularly cancer).
Table of Contents
Preface.List of Contributors.Color Plates.Part I: Microtubule Organization and Dynamics.1. Early Studies on Centrioles and Centrosomes (Joseph G. Gall).1.1 Introduction.1.2 Pioneering Studies.1.3 Self-replication versus De Novo Formation.1.4 Centrioles and Basal Bodies.1.5 Blepharoplasts.1.6 The Search for DNA.1.7 On to Self-assembly.References.2. The Tubulin Superfamily (Tim Stearns).2.1 History.2.2 Family Relations.2.3 Localization and Function.2.4 gamma-Tubulin.2.5 delta-Tubulin.2.6 E-Tubulin.2.7 Other Members of the Fold.References.3. Microtubule Nucleation (Michelle Moritz, Luke M. Rice and David A. Agard).3.1 Introduction.3.2 Kinetic Models of the Mechanism of Microtubule Nucleation.3.3 The Involvement of Non-g-TuRC Proteins in Microtubule Nucl eation.3.4 Future Directions.Acknowledgments.References.4. The Budding Yeast Spindle Pole Body: A Centrosome Analog (Suzanne van Kreeveld Naone and Mark Winey).4.1 Introduction.4.2 Molecular Composition of the Spindle Pole Body.4.3 Microtubule Nucleation.4.4 Assembly/Duplication of SPBs and Centrosomes.4.5 Signaling Platform.4.6 Developmental Alteration of SPB Function.4.7 Parting Thoughts.Acknowledgments.References.5. Dissection of Basal Body and Centriole Function in the Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Susan K. Dutcher).5.1 Introduction.5.2 Why Study a Green Alga to Learn about Centrioles and Basal Bodies?5.3 Structure of the Basal Body and Centriole in Chlamydomonas.5.4 Additional Fibers that Connect Basal Bodies and Centrioles.5.5 Overview of the Cell Cycle of Chlamydomonas.5.6 Duplication of Basal Bodies in Chlamydomonas.5.7 Role of Tubulin Isoforms in Basal Body Duplication.5.8 Timing of Basal Body/Centriole Duplication in Chlamydomonas.5.9 Function of Basal Bodies and Centrioles in Chlamydomonas.5.10 What Makes a Basal Body Different from a Centriole?5.11 Conclusion.Acknowledgments.References.6. The Centrosome in Evolution (Juliette Azimzadeh and Michel Bornens).6.1 Introduction.6.2 The Centriole/Basal Body Structure is a Derived Characteristic of Eukaryotes.6.3 The Basal Body/Axoneme is the Ancestral Structure.6.4 Functions Associated with the Flagellar Apparatus.6.5 The Conservative Mode of Duplication of the Basal Body/Centriole/SPB: An Essential Clue for Cell Morphogenesis.6.6 The Centrosome or Central Body.6.7 Evolution of Centrosome-associated Gene Products.6.8 Conclusion: The Centrosome - A Cell Individuation Organ?Acknowledgments.References.Part II: The Integration of Centrosome and Chromosome Cycles.7. A Proteomic Approach to the Inventory of the Human Centrosome (Christopher J. Wilkinson, Jens S. Andersen, Matthias Mann and Erich A. Nigg).7.1 Introduction.7.2 What is a Centrosome Component?7.3 Composition of the Human Centrosome: A Proteomic Approach.7.4 Inspection of Novel Centrosome Proteins by Sequence Analysis.7.5 Cell Cycle Changes in Centrosome Composition.7.6 The Impact of MS on Centrosome Analysis during Cell Cycle and Development.7.7 Expanding Proteomic Information into Knowledge about Function.7.8 Conclusion and Prospects.Acknowledgments.References.8. The Role of the Centrosome in Cell Cycle Progression (Andrew M. Fry and Rebecca S. Hames).8.1 Introduction.8.2 Cell Cycle Dynamics of Centrosome Structure.8.3 Old and New Functions of the Centrosome.8.4 The Centrosome in G2/M Control.8.5 Initiation of Cyclin B Destruction at the Centrosome.8.6 The Contribution of Centrosomes to Cytokinesis.8.7 A Role for Centrosomes in G1/S Progression?8.8 In Conclusion.Acknowledgments.References.9. Centrosome Duplication and its Regulation in the Higher Animal Cell (Greenfield Sluder).9.1 Introduction.9.2 The Events of Centrosome Reproduction.9.3 Control of Centrosome Duplication.9.4 Closing Remarks.Acknowledgments.References.10. A Synergy of Technologies: Using Green Fluorescent Protein Tagging and Laser Microsurgery to Study Centrosome Function and Duplication in Vertebrates (Alexey Khodjakov and Conly L. Rieder).10.1 Introduction.10.2 Laser Microsurgery.10.3 Roles of the Centrosome during Cell Division.10.4 The Centrosome in the Cell Cycle.10.5 For the Future.Acknowledgments.References.11. Centrosome Regulation in Response to Environmental and Genotoxic Stress (Ody C. M. Sibon and William E. Theurkauf).11.1 Introduction.11.2 Heat Shock.11.3 Centrosomes and the Unfolded Protein Response.11.4 Centrosome Disruption in Response to Genotoxic Stress.11.5 Final Thoughts.References.Part III: The Centrosome in Development and Tissue Architecture.12. The C. elegans Centrosome during Early Embryonic Development (Laurence Pelletier, Thomas Muller-Reichert, Martin Srayko, Nurhan Ozlu, Anne-Lore Schlaitz and Anthony A. Hyman).Abbreviations.12.1 Introduction.12.2 The C. elegans Centrosome.12.3 The Centrosome Cycle in C. elegans Embryos.12.4 Centrosome Functions.12.5 Concluding Remarks.Acknowledgments.References.13. Centrosomes in a Developing Organism: Lessons from Drosophila (Jordan W. Raff).13.1 Introduction.13.2 Centrosome and Microtubule Organisation during the Drosophila Life Cycle.13.3 Drosophila Centrosomal Proteins.13.4 The Role of Centrosomes and Centrosomal Proteins In Vivo.13.5 Summary.Acknowledgments.References.14. Centrosome Inheritance during Human Fertilization and "Therapeutic" Cloning: Reproductive and Developmental Diseases and Disorders Caused by Centrosome Dysfunction (C. S. Navara, C. Simerly and G. Schatten).14.1 Introduction.14.2 Centrosomes during Human Fertilization.14.3 Centrosome Dysfunction as Causes of Human Infertility.14.4 Centrosome Functional Assays for Diagnosing Male Infertility.14.5 Polyspermy in Humans.14.6 "Dispermy Hypothesis" for the Origins of Genomic Imprinted Disorders.14.7 Maternal Centrosome Anomalies and Birth Defects.14.8 Resolving the Special Problem of Parthenogenesis: Roles of Cytoplasmic Motors and NuMA.14.9 Centrosomes during Cloning, and Centrosomes in Embryonic Stem Cells Derived after Nuclear Transfer.14.10 Research Challenges for Centrosome Developmental Biologists: Developmental Centrosomopathies.References.15. Microtubule Organizing Centers in Polarized Epithelial Cells (Mette M. Mogensen).15.1 Introduction.15.2 Centrosomal Microtubule Nucleation.15.3 Non-centrosomal Microtubule Arrays.15.4 Microtubule Minus-end Anchorage at Centrosomal and Non-centrosomal Sites.15.5 Centrosomal Release of Microtubules and Anchoring Complexes.15.6 Stabilization of Non-centrosomal Microtubules.15.7 Release and Capture.Acknowledgments.References.Part IV: Centrosomes in Disease.16. Centrosome Anomalies in Cancer: From Early Observations to Animal Models (Thea M. Goepfert and William R. Brinkley).16.1 Early Observations.16.2 Origin of Centrosome Anomalies.16.3 Animal Models.Acknowledgments.References.17. Radiation Therapy and Centrosome Anomalies in Pancreatic Cancer (Norihiro Sato, Kazuhiro Mizumoto, and Masao Tanaka).Abstract.17.1 Introduction.17.2 Radiation-induced Cell Death: Apoptosis or Mitotic Cell Death?17.3 Centrosome Anomalies Induced by Radiation.17.4 The Mechanism(s) Leading to Centrosome Anomalies after Radiation Treatment.17.5 The Consequence of Centrosome Anomalies after Irradiation.17.6 Factors Affecting Centrosome Anomalies after Irradiation.17.7 Conclusions and Future Directions.References.18. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Centrosome Anomalies in Cervical Cancer (Karl M-nger and Stefan Duensing).18.1 Genomic Instability and Malignant Progression.18.2 Human Papilloma viruses.18.3 Biological Activities of HPV E6/E7 Oncogenes.18.4 HPV-mediated Cervical Carcinogenesis as a Model System to Study Genomic Instability and Malignant Progression.18.5 Centrosome Abnormalities and Genomic Instability: Cause or Effect?18.6 Induction of Centrosome Abnormalities by HPV Oncoproteins: Boveris Model Revisited.18.7 Do HPV E7-induced Centrosome Anomalies Contribute to Carcinogenic Progression?18.8 Mechanistic Considerations.18.9 Concluding Remarks.Acknowledgments.References.19. Manipulation of Centrosomes and the Microtubule Cytoskeleton during Infection by Intracellular Pathogens (Niki Scaplehorn and Michael Way).19.1 Introduction.19.2 Microtubule-directed Movement of Viruses and Membrane Compartments during Viral Infection.19.3 Virus-mediated Damage to the Centrosome and Microtubule Network.19.4 Viral Disruption of the Centrosome Duplication Cycle and Spindle Checkpoints.19.5 Bacterial Manipulation of the Centrosome and Microtubules.19.6 Conclusion.Acknowledgments.References.20. Basal Bodies and Microtubule Organization in Pathogenic Protozoa (Keith Gull, Laura Briggs and Sue Vaughan).20.1 Introduction and Appreciation.20.2 The "Dispersed" MTOC Complement of Protozoal Cells.20.3 The Trypanosoma brucei Microtubule Biology.20.4 The Microtubule Biology of the Apicomplexa.20.5 Basal Bodies Are More than Just Microtubule Organizers: The Hitchhikers Guide to the Cytoskeleton!20.6 Cytoskeletal Adaptations to Parasitism.20.7 Conclusion.Acknowledgments.References.
Erich Nigg obtained his PhD in Biochemistry from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich. After postdoctoral training in California, he directed research groups at the ETH and the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, before being appointed Full Professor at the University of Geneva. In 1997, he became Director and Scientific Member of the Max-Planck Society, and has been head of the Cell Biology Department at the Max-Planck Institute for Biochemistry in Martinsried/Munich since October 1999. Professor Nigg's research interests are centered on cell cycle control, with a current focus on the regulation of the centrosome cycle, cell division, and the problem of chromosomal instability in cancer.