Societies and states have gone through major transformations in the last few decades. Globalization and domestic reforms have restructured states and created new winners and losers at the societal level. Moreover, the new dynamics that have shaped the state policies towards the disadvantaged groups have transformed the nature of poverty with an increased emphasis on inequality and social exclusion rather than absolute poverty. Although children have been historically among the groups that are first and foremost influenced by the course of poverty, the way they are affected have changed leading up to emergence of new forms of child labour. This book focuses on the concept of New Poverty to explain emergence and expansion of working street children at similar time periods, in two very different countries: Turkey and Romania.