This book presents, for the first time in English, a complete crititcal survey of the theory and methodology of Indo-European linguistics, from its origins two centuries ago to the present day. Professor Lehmann surveys the current status of Indo-European linguistics by making hitherto unknown material accessible and by reexamining outlines of the theories underlying other, now outdated, handbooks. Latest advances in the field are also examined, notably by Soviet scholars in the area of typology, which have improved not only our understanding of Proto-Indo-European speakers and their background, but have imporant implications for further studies in the field. He also provides a succinct account of the phonology, morphology and syntax of Pre- and Proto-Indo-European. This unique analysis shows the development of various problems and approaches in historical perspective as well as applying and exploring current linguistic findings and theory in the area.