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Why do new legislative acts and regulations designed to improve schools have little impact on teaching? Why have so many attempts at school reform been so notably unsuccessful? While seeking to answer these questions, Angus examined the complex issue of rules and regulations. He found a shell of rules around teaching that is guarded by unions and departmental officials. This shell is made up not only of official rules but also informal rules, some of which, even though unspoken, are highly influential. Collectively, these rules provide stability but also confine the extent of any change. In "The Rules of School Reform" the author draws two separate but related conclusions that have serious implications for school improvement. Firstly, as long as the basic regulatory structures are left in place there is unlikely to be any enduring change to teaching. Secondly, should officials remove these structures, they will lose control of the system they are employed to manage. There is no escape from this dilemma. The author asks how can school reform succeed, unless we examine how established rule systems shape classroom life?