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The purpose of this study is to determine the social and social psychological factors that are related to adherence to HIV medical regimens and involvement in high-risk behaviors. The ability of Agnew's general strain theory (GST) to explain non-adherence and risky behaviors was specifically tested. Adherence is crucial to maintain low viral loads and prevent the development of a drug resistant virus. Involvement in high-risk behavior further complicates successful adherence to medical regimes and the overall treatment of HIV/AIDS. Specifically tested in this study was the applicability of Agnew's (1992) GST in explaining both medical and behavioral non-adherence to treatment regimens in a Hispanic population residing along the U.S.-Mexico International Border. While not providing support for GST overall, findings do suggest that key components of general strain theory as well as other criminological theories including social and self-control and differential association may prove useful in furthering our understanding of medical adherence and involvement in high-risk behaviors.