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This book argues that abusive punishments are particularly deeply rooted in authoritarian states and in some Western countries such as Britain and the USA, from which they have been exported over past centuries. The book surveys a variety of psychological, physically constraining, custodial, corporal and capital punishments. The implicit punitive content of judicial processes such as trial, as well as treatments such as behavioural therapy, may have as much psychological impact as more explicitly physical punishments.
ROBERT ADAMS is Professor of Human Services Development at the University of Lincolnshire and Humberside, Hull, and Visiting Professor to the School of Health, University of Teesside. He has worked in social work and criminal justice settings and is the author of a number of books, including Social Work and Empowerment and Quality Social Work.