Children's literature did not suddenly appear as if by magic. It came into existence in printed form in the 18th century, though religious and instructional books had appeared earlier, and grew to fruition in Britain and America in the 19th century because of quite specific developments in society. The ideas of such men as John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau helped to change European perspectives on the nature of childhood, and to suggest that it had needs and values of its own. This book charts the development of books for children by examining factors such as the gradual spread of education from the later half of the 18th century onwards, first through the Sunday School Movement, and then through the faltering steps towards providing state education. Finally innovations in printing and publishing meant that it became possible to produce attractive books more cheaply for children. The combination of these several forces was irresistible and throughout the 19th century more and more books were published for children.