Dr Carroll's synthesis of past and recent archaeological research introduces readers to the main features of the Roman Empire in these provinces. It deals with the pre-Roman societies and their landscapes which were to be changed by the Romans after the conquests of Caesar and Augustus. The book also explores the concept of frontier and assesses the role of the German provinces as border zones of the Empire. Of particular interest is the interaction between Roman and native cultures as well as the ways in which ethnic and cultural identities were expressed. It also examines why Romanisation succeeded in some areas and not in others.