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Historically black colleges and universities were founded in the 1800s to meet the educational needs of African-Americans. These institutions now face survival obstacles that jeopardize their continued existence. The Court, in U.S. v. Fordice (1992), established test standards to desegregate Mississippi's postsecondary institution Jackson State University with implications for other HBCUs nationwide. State legislatures must now eliminate single race based schools unless there is a legal or an educational justification for their existence. The purpose of this study is to open the discussion for dialogue about the desegregation of Jackson State University and its continued existence. A descriptive case study was employed in the context of quantitative and qualitative data. The findings indicate Jackson State University has a unique mission: preparing disadvantaged populations for underrepresented fields; contributing to America's dominant social, economic, and political environment and providing sociological benefits to students who attend who might not otherwise have access to achieve and succeed.