using standard courier delivery
CMOS implementations of direct conversion receivers, the architecture most amenable to complete monolithic integration, are hindered by the 1/f DEGREES3 noise of the local oscillator. This work explores sources of flicker noise generation in the cross-coupled negative resistance oscillator (NMOS, PMOS, and CMOS). Prior and current work in the area of phase noise modeling is reviewed, including the work of Leeson, Hajimiri, Hegazi, and others, seeking the mechanisms by which flicker noise is upconverted. The work of Hajimiri is extended with a simple hardware DC estimator for the special case of LC CMOS oscillators. A method of adaptive control of an oscillator core is presented, as well, using this estimate to maintain the condition of minimum flicker noise upconversion in the oscillator. A Figure of Merit (FOM) methodology suitable to the 1/f DEGREES3 phase noise region is also developed. This work will be of particular interest to practicing engineers in RFIC design, as well as graduate students and advanced undergraduates."