Table of Contents
Introduction. Acknowledgements. Part One: Philosophy Before Socrates. 1.1 Thales and the earliest natural philosophers. 1.2 Xenophanes. 1.3 Heracleitus. 1.4 Parmenides and other Eleatics. 1.5 Democritus and Fifth-Century Atomism. 1.6 Protagoras and the Sophistic Movements. 1.7 Challenges from the Pre-Socratics and Sophists. Part Two: Socrates. 2.1 The Socratic Elenchus. 2.2 The Failures of Meno and Euthyphro. 2.3 Socratic Ignorance and Socratic Irony. 2.4 Socratic Conviction and the Socratic Paradoxes. 2.5 Socrates on Trial and in Prison. 2.6 Conclusions. Part Three: Plato. 3.1 From Socrates to Plato. 3.2 Meno's Paradox of Inquiry: Plato's Response. 3.3 Two Functions of Plato's Theory of Forms. 3.4 Plato to Aristotle. 3.5 Three Arguments for Forms. 3.6 Plato's General Characterizations of Forms. 3.7 Platonic Analysis: A Case Study. 3.8 The Special Role of the Form of the Good. 3.9 Problems about Forms. 3.10 Conclusions. Part Four: Aristotle. 4.1 Plato's Rejection of Relativism 4.2 Aristotle's Introduction of Category Theory. 4.3 The Four Causes Introduced. 4.4 The Four Causes Defended. 4.5 The Four Causes Applied I: Soul and Body. 4.6 The Four Causes Applied II: Happiness and the Human Function. 4.7 Aristotle on Philosophical Analysis. 4.8 Conclusions. Suggestions for Further Reading.
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