Traditional X-ray sources are only efficient at generating "hard" X-rays, such as those applied in radiography, crystallography, and chemical analysis. The potential applications of "soft" X-rays have long been realized, but until recently these X-rays have only been generated via a type of particle accelerator called a synchrotron. While very efficient, synchrotrons are neither compact or user-friendly. An alternative to the synchrotron for producing "soft" X-rays is the laser-plasma source. The development of efficient laser plasma sources constitutes a leap forward in the field, and could open up a whole new range of applications in the semiconductor industry. Presenting details of this method of generating X-rays, this book is designed to give the reader the basic technological information regarding lasers and plasmas, a practical introduction to the design and operation of the sources, and a detailed overview of the applications to a number of fields.