Division of labor began with the invention of fire-making, and it was a division of labor based upon sex. The woman stayed by the fire to keep it alive while the man went to the field or the forest for game. The world's industrialism and militancy began then and there. Man has been cunning in devising means of killing beast and his fellowman - he has been the inventor in every murderous art. The woman at the fireside became the burden bearer, the basket-maker, the weaver, potter, agriculturist, domesticator of animals - in a word, the inventor of all the peaceful arts of life. Professor Mason traces the story for us in these chapters. Otis Tufton Mason (1838-1908) was Curator of the Department of Ethnology in the United States National Museum.