This volume summarizes what we know about professional schools, transnational campuses, proprietary schools, religious institutions, and corporate universities. As the fabric of higher education becomes more complex and as students take advantage of these specialized educational environments, conducting meaningful and relevant research becomes a challenge. The volume authors argue for the importance of educational context and debunk the one--size--fits--all approach to assessment and evaluation. Each chapter examines the critical areas in need of attention and the implications for institutional research and outcomes assessment. Those approaching the challenge of research and policy analysis within this collage of diverse institutions and distinctive student populations will find this volume to be a valuable guide. This is the 124th issue of the quarterly report New Directions for Institutional Research.