A modern introduction to the subject taking a unique integrated approach designed to appeal to both science and engineering students. Covering a broad spectrum of topics, this book includes numerous up-to-date examples of real materials with relevant applications and a modern treatment of key concepts. The science bias allows this book to be equally accessible to engineers, chemists and physicists. Carefully structured into self-contained bite-sized chapters to enhance student understanding Questions have been designed to reinforce the concepts presented Includes coverage of radioactivity Relects a rapidly growing field from the science perspective
Table of Contents
PREFACE. PART 1. STRUCTURES AND MICROSTRUCTURES. CHAPTER 1. THE ELECTRON STRUCTURE OF ATOMS. ATOMS. THE HYDROGEN ATOM. The quantum mechanical description of a hydrogen atom. The energy of the electron. The location of the electron. Orbital shapes. MANY ELECTRON ATOMS. The orbital approximation. Electron spin and electron configuration. The Periodic Table. ATOMIC ENERGY LEVELS. Electron energy levels. The vector model. Terms and term schemes. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 1.1. Chemical equations and units. Appendix 1.2. The electron configuration of the lighter atoms. Appendix 1.3. The 3d transition metals. Appendix 1.4. The lanthanides. Appendix 1.5. Energy levels and term schemes of many electron atoms. Appendix 1.6. The ground state term of an atom. CHAPTER 2. CHEMICAL BONDING. IONIC BONDING. Ions. Ionic bonding. Madelung energy. Repulsive energy. Lattice energy. The formulae and structures of ionic compounds. Ionic size and shape. Ionic structures. COVALENT BONDING. Molecular orbitals. The energies of molecular orbitals in diatomic molecules. Bonding between unlike atoms. Electronegativity. Bond strength and direction. Orbital hybridisation. Multiple bonds. Resonance. METALLIC BONDING. Bonding in metals. Chemical bonding. Atomic orbitals and energy bands. Divalent and other metals. The classical free electron gas. The quantum free electron gas. The Fermi energy and Fermi surface. Energy bands. Brillouin zones . Alloys and non--crystalline metals. Bands in ionic and covalent solids. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 2.1. Madelung constants. CHAPTER 3. STATES OF AGGREGATION. FORMULAE AND NAMES. Weak chemical bonds. Chemical names and formulae. Polymorphism and other transformations. MACROSTRUCTURES, MICROSTRUCTURES AND NANOSTRUCTURES. Structures and microstructures. Crystalline solids. Non--crystalline solids. Partly crystalline solids. Nanostructures. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURES. Solidification. Processing. DEFECTS. Point defects in crystals of elements. Solid solutions. Schottky defects. Frenkel defects. Non--stoichiometric compounds. Edge dislocations. Screw dislocations. Partial and mixed dislocations. Multiplication of dislocations. Planar defects. Volume defects; precipitates. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. CHAPTER 4. PHASE DIAGRAMS. PHASES AND PHASE DIAGRAMS. One--component (unary) systems. BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS. Two--component (binary) systems. Simple binary phase diagrams: nickel (Ni) -- copper (Cu). Binary systems containing a eutectic point: Tin (Sn) -- lead (Pb). Solid solution formation. Binary systems containing intermediate compounds. The iron -- carbon phase diagram. Steels and cast irons. Invariant points. TERNARY SYSTEMS. Ternary phase diagrams. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 4.1. The phase rule. CHAPTER 5. CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURES. CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. Crystal lattices. Crystal structures and crystal systems. Symmetry and crystal classes. Crystal planes and Miller indices. Hexagonal crystals and Miller--Bravais indices. Directions. The reciprocal lattice. THE DETERMINATION OF CRYSTAL STRUCTURES. Single crystal X--ray diffraction. Powder X--ray diffraction and crystal identification. Neutron diffraction. Electron diffraction. CRYSTAL STRUCTURES. Unit cells and atomic coordinates. The density of a crystal. The cubic close--packed (A1) structure. The body--centred cubic (A2) structure. The hexagonal (A3) structure. The diamond (A4) structure. The hexagonal (A9) (graphite) structure. The structure of boron nitride . The halite (rock salt, sodium chloride, B1) structure. The spinel (H11) structure. STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS. Sphere packing. Ionic structures in terms of anion packing. Polyhedral representations. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 5.1. Miller indices. Appendix 5.2. Interplanar spacing and unit cell volume. Appendix 5.3. Construction of a reciprocal lattice. PART 2. CLASSES OF MATERIALS. CHAPTER 6. METALS, CERAMICS, POLYMERS AND COMPOSITES. METALS. The crystal structures of pure metals. Metallic radii. Alloy solid solutions. Substitutional solid solutions. Interstitial solid solutions. Metallic glasses. The principal properties of metals. CERAMICS. Bonding and structure of silicate ceramics. Bonding and structure of non--silicate ceramics . The preparation and processing of ceramics. The principal properties of ceramics. GLASS. Bonding and structure of silicate glasses. Glass deformation. Strengthened glass. Glass ceramics. POLYMERS. The chemical structure of some polymers. Microstructures of polymers. Production of polymers. Elastomers. The principal properties of polymers. COMPOSITE MATERIALS. Fibre reinforced plastics. Metal--matrix composites. Ceramic--Matrix composites. Cement and Concrete. Portland cement. Hardening of cement. Microstructures of cement and concrete. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 6.1. Summary of organic chemical nomenclature. PART 3. REACTIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS. CHAPTER 7. DIFFUSION. Self--diffusion, tracer diffusion and tracer impurity diffusion. Non steady--state diffusion. Steady--state diffusion. Temperature variation of diffusion coefficient. The effect of impurities. The penetration depth. Self--diffusion mechanisms. Atomic movement during diffusion. Atomic migration and diffusion coefficients. Self--diffusion in crystals. The Arrhenius equation and the effect of temperature. Correlation factors for self--diffusion. Ionic conductivity. The relationship between ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 7.1. The relationship between D and diffusion distance. Appendix 7.2. Atomic migration and the diffusion coefficient. Appendix 7.3. Ionic conductivity. CHAPTER 8. REACTIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS. DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM. Reversible reactions and equilibrium. Equilibrium constants. Combining equilibrium constants. Equilibrium conditions. Pseudochemical equilibrium. PHASE DIAGRAMS AND MICROSTRUCTURES. Equilibrium solidification of simple binary alloys. Non--equilibrium solidification and coring. Solidification of systems containing a eutectic point. Equilibrium heat treatment of steels. Rapid cooling of steels. MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATIONS. Displacive transitions. Martensitic transformations in alloys. Shape memory alloys. SINTERING. Sintering and reaction. The driving force for sintering. The kinetics of neck growth. HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION OF METALS. The driving force for oxidation. The rate of oxidation. Mechanisms of oxidation. SOLID STATE REACTIONS. Spinel formation. The kinetics of spinel formation. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 8.1. Phase transformations and thermodynamics. CHAPTER 9. OXIDATION AND REDUCTION. REDOX REACTIONS. Oxidation and reduction . GALVANIC CELLS. Galvanic cells. Standard electrode potentials. Cell Potential and free energy. Concentration dependence. Chemical analysis using galvanic cells. BATTERIES. "Dry" and alkaline primary batteries. Lithium--ion primary batteries. The lead--acid secondary battery. Nickel--cadmium Ni--Cd (nicad) rechargable batteries. Nickel--metal--hydride rechargeable batteries. Lithium--ion rechargeable batteries. Fuel cells. CORROSION. The reaction of metals with water and aqueous acids. Dissimilar metal corrosion. Single metal electrochemical corrosion. ELECTROLYSIS. Electrolytic cells. Electrolysis of fused salts. The electrolytic preparation of titanium by the FCC Cambridge process. Electrolysis of aqueous solutions. The amount of product produced during electrolysis. Electroplating. POURBAIX DIAGRAMS. Passivation and corrosion. Variable valence states. Pourbaix diagram for a metal showing two valence states, M2+ and M3+. Pourbaix diagram displaying tendency for corrosion. Limitations of Pourbaix diagrams. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 9.1. Oxidation numbers. Appendix 9.2. Cell notation. Appendix 9.3. The stability field of water. Appendix 9.4. Corrosion and the calculation of the Pourbaix diagram for iron. PART 4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. CHAPTER 10. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS. DEFORMATION. Strength. Stress and strain. Stress -- strain curves. Elastic deformation: the elastic (Younga s) modulus. Poissona s ratio. Toughness and stiffness. Brittle fracture. Plastic deformation of metals and ceramics. Dislocation movement and plastic deformation. Brittle and ductile materials . Plastic deformation of polymers. Fracture following plastic deformation. Strengthening . Hardness. TIME DEPENDENT PROPERTIES. Fatigue. Creep. NANOSCALE PROPERTIES. Solid lubricants. Auxetic materials. Thin films. COMPOSITE MATERIALS. Elastic modulus of large particle composites. Elastic modulus of fibre reinforced composites. Elastic modulus of a two--phase system. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 10.1. Elastic moduli. Appendix 10.2. The calculation of elastic and bulk moduli. Appendix 10.3. Estimation of fracture strength of a brittle solid. Appendix 10.4. Estimation of the fracture strength of a brittle solid containing a crack. CHAPTER 11. INSULATING SOLIDS. INSULATORS. Relative permittivity and polarisation. Polarizability. Polarizability and relative permittivity. The frequency dependence of polarizability and relative. permittivity. Polarisation in non--isotropic solids. PIEZOELECTRICS, PYROELECTRICS AND FERROELECTRICS. The piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects. Piezoelectric mechanisms. Piezoelectric polymers. The pyroelectric effect. FERROELECTRICS. Ferroelectric crystals. Hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals . Antiferroelectrics. The temperature dependence of ferroelecticity and antiferroelectricity. Ferroelectricity due to hydrogen bonds. Ferroelectricity due to polar groups. Ferroelectricity due to medium sized transition metal cations. Poling and polycrystalline piezoelectric solids. Doping and modification of properties. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 11.1. Formulae and units used to describe the electrical properties of insulators. CHAPTER 12. MAGNETIC SOLIDS. MAGNETIC MATERIALS. The characterisation of magnetic materials. Types of magnetic material. Atomic magnetism. WEAK MAGNETIC MATERIALS. Diamagnetic materials. Paramagnetic materials. Temperature dependence of paramagnetic susceptibility. FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS. Ferromagnetism. Exchange energy. Antiferromagnetism and superexchange. Ferrimagnetism and double exchange. Cubic spinel ferrites. Hexagonal ferrites. THE MICROSTRUCTURES OF FERROMAGNETIC SOLIDS. Domains. Hysteresis. Hard and soft magnetic materials. FREE ELECTRONS. Pauli paramagnetism. Transition metals. NANOSTRUCTURES. Small particles and data recording. Superparamagnetism and thin films. Molecular magnetism. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 12.1. Formulae and units used to describe the magnetic properties of materials. Appendix 12.2. Crystal field and ligand field theory. CHAPTER 13. ELECTRONIC CONDUCTIVITY IN SOLIDS. METALS. Metals, semiconductors and insulators. Conductivity of metals and alloys. SEMICONDUCTORS. Intrinsic semiconductors. Carrier concentrations in intrinsic semiconductors. Extrinsic semiconductors. Carrier concentrations in extrinsic semiconductors. Characterisation. The p--n junction diode. Modification of insulators. Conducting polymers. NANOSTRUCTURES AND QUANTUM CONFINEMENT OF ELECTRONS. Quantum wells. Quantum wires and quantum dots. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY. Superconductors. The effect of magnetic fields. The effect of current. The nature of superconductivity. Ceramic "high temperature" superconductors. Lanthanum cuprate, La2CuO4 . Yttrium barium copper oxide, (123), YBa2Cu3O7 . Josephson junctions. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 13.1. Electrical resistance and conductivity. Appendix 13.2.urrent flow. Appendix 13.3. The electron and hole concentrations in intrinsic semiconductors. CHAPTER 14. OPTICAL ASPECTS OF SOLIDS. THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. Light waves. Photons. The interaction of light with matter. SOURCES OF LIGHT. Luminescence. Incandescence. Fluorescence and solid--state lasers. The ruby laser: three level lasers. The neodymium (Nd3+) solid state laser: four level lasers. Light emitting diodes. Semiconductor lasers. COLOUR AND APPEARANCE. Luminous solids. Non--luminous solids. The Beer--Lambert law. REFRACTION AND DISPERSION. Refraction. Refractive index and structure. The refractive index of metals and semiconductors. Dispersion. REFLECTION. Reflection from a surface. Reflection from a single thin film. The reflectivity of a single thin film in air. The colour of a single thin film in air. The colour of a single thin film on a substrate. Low reflectivity (antireflection) and high reflectivity coatings. Multiple thin films and dielectric mirrors. SCATTERING. Rayleigh scattering. Mie scattering. DIFFRACTION. Diffraction by an aperture. Diffraction gratings. Diffraction from crystal--like structures. Photonic crystals. FIBRE OPTICS. Optical communications. Attenuation in glass fibres. Dispersion and optical fibre design. Optical amplification. NON--LINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS. Non--linear optics. ENERGY CONVERSION. Photoconductivity and photovoltaic solar cells. Photoelectrochemical cells. NANOSTRUCTURES. The optical properties of quantum wells. Quantum dots and quantum wires. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 14.1. Energy and wavelength conversions. Appendix 14.2. Rates of absorption and emission. Appendix 14.3. The colour of a thin film in white light. CHAPTER 15. THERMAL PROPERTIES. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS. Heat capacity. Theory of heat capacity. Quantum and classical statistics. Thermal conductivity. Heat transfer. Thermal expansion. Thermal expansion and interatomic potentials. Thermal contraction. THERMOELECTRIC EFFECTS. Thermoelectric coefficients. Thermoelectric effects and charge carriers . Thermocouples, power generation and refrigeration. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. Appendix 15.1. Classical and quantum statistics. PART 5. NUCLEAR PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS. CHAPTER 16. RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR REACTIONS. RADIOACTIVITY. Radioactive elements. Isotopes and nuclides. Nuclear equations. Radioactive series. Transuranic elements. Artificial radioactivity. RATES OF DECAY. Nuclear stability. The rate of nuclear decay. Radioactive dating. NUCLEAR POWER. The binding energy of nuclides. Nuclear fission. Thermal reactors and power generation. Fuel for space exploration. Fast breeder reactors. Fusion. Solar cycles. NUCLEAR WASTE. Nuclear accidents. The storage of nuclear waste. Answers to introductory questions. Further reading. Problems and exercises. Quick Quiz. Calculations and Questions. ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS AND EXERCISES. INDEX.