This study not only carefully investigates the Jewish tradition of water and Spirit as the normative background of John 4, but also develops temple Christology by connecting these distinct traditions of water and the Spirit as eschatological life for John's use of Spirit as the source of new creational life. The aim of this thesis is to answer the following three crucial questions in order to sustain the development of the temple Christological theme in John 4: 1) What does the image of water represent?; 2) What does it mean to worship in Spirit and truth?, and 3) How do the disparate parts (water scene [4:6-15] and the Spirit scene [4:20-26]) function as a whole?
The Reverend Dr. Stephen Um is a graduate of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (M.Div; Th.M.), and the University of St. Andrews in Scotland (Ph.D.). He teaches at Gordon-Conwell as a lecturer of New Testament.