An account of Anglo-Portuguese diplomatic and commercial relations between 1691 and 1708. Any study of this aspect of the War of the Spanish Succession hinges on the diplomatic despatches of the Methuen family. John Methuen was appointed English Minister in Lisbon in 1691 and later became Ambassador. He was succeeded by his son Paul in 1706. Through their combined trade acumen and understanding of Portugal they became influential figures in European politics. Their ability greatly strengthened English resistance to the threat of French dominance in Europe. Their best-known achievement is the Methuen commercial treaty of 1703 which cemented the Triple and Quadruple offensive alliance of the same year. Commercial weakness was a fundamental cause of the eventual French defeat.