The relationship of Marxism to the 'Jewish Question' is far more complex than many have assumed. Despite the Jewish backgrounds of several Marxists (including Marx himself), many showed a sense of indifference toward a sense of 'Jewishness'. Yet an increasingly virulent anti-Semitism - affecting sections of the working class and culminating in the Holocaust and in the growing strength of Zionism - became a problem that numerous Marxist thinkers were compelled to consider. In addition to examining the works of Marx, Karl Kautsky, Leon Trotsky, Ber Borokhov, Abram Leon, and figures associated with the Frankfurt School, Traverso also investigates the actual policies in the socialist and communist movements and sensitively explores the unique history of the Jewish workers' movement in various countries.
Enzo Traverso is affiliated with the Bibliothï¿½que de Documentation Internationale Contemporaine at the University of Paris X-Nanterre. He is also the author of Les Juifs et l'Allemagne.