From the introduction: "In the great and tragic history of Europe there is a turning point that marks the defeat of the ideal of a world-order and the definite acceptance of international anarchy. That turning-point is the emergence of the sovereign State at the end of the fifteenth century. And it is symbolical of all that was to follow that at that point stands, looking down the vista of the centuries, the brilliant and sinister figure of Machiavelli. From that date onwards international policy has meant Machiavellianism. Sometimes the masters of the craft, like Catherine de Medici or Napoleon, have avowed it; sometimes, like Frederick the Great, they have disclaimed it. But always they have practised it." G. Lowes Dickinson (1862-1932) was a pacifist during World War I, and he was later instrumental in the conception of the League of Nations. His political writings include The International Anarchy, 1904-1914 (1926). He is also known for The Greek View of Life (1896), a study of Hellenic society.