This series provides concise analysis of complex issues and problems in important A-level Modern History topics. Using supporting documents, the books give students a clear account of historical facts and an understanding of the central themes and differing interpretations. The second edition of this volume seeks to explain why the 1848 revolutions were so widespread, why they failed and what their longer-term implications were. The approach attempts to show how the processes of economic and social change led people of different social groups to seek and support new and diverse political programmes. Thus, an already inherently weak existing order collapsed in the face of the twin crises of food shortages and industrial depression. The book then demonstrates how the revolutions themselves were undermined by divisions among the revolutionaries and how the old order was able to recover and stage a counter-revolution. Finally, despite their failure the author discusses how the revolutions helped to make way for the transformation of Europe into nation states.