Why some Indian Muslims under British rule should have organised politics on a communal basis is one of the most important problems in the history of the subcontinent. Insistence on a separate Muslim political identity led eventually to the foundation of Pakistan and many of the troubles which have beset the area since Independence. The separate Muslim front in Indian politics was led and supported mainly by men from the United Provinces. The first period of effective separatist politics ended in 1923. This book examines the circumstances in which the separate Muslim front was built up and crumbled away in this period, and then analyses the different groups which at various times supported it. Dr Robinson argues that Muslim separatism was fostered by the political needs of the British, of the Muslims and of the Indian National Congress.