The goal of this book is to illustrate the change in emphasis during the 1980s from one dominated by a behavioristic perspective to one much more congnitive in its emphasis. Self-efficacy expectancies refer to personal action control or agency. A person who believes in being able to cause an event can conduct a more active self-determined life course. An issue which pervades psychological research in many domains, a strong sense of personal efficacy is found to be related to better health, higher achievement and better social integration. The book is aimed at research psychologists and graduate-level students in the areas of health, social, clinical and educational psychology.