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Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Vascular Relaxation in Porcine Coronary Arteries



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Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Vascular Relaxation in Porcine Coronary Arteries by Tsz-Ling Chiu
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This dissertation, "Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases in Vascular Relaxation in Porcine Coronary Arteries" by Tsz-ling, Chiu, 趙芷菱, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Background: Regulation of vascular tone is complex. Various complementary signaling pathways causing contraction and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle take place to ensure proper blood flow within the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade is observed to be one of the many signaling pathways that regulate vascular tone. Aim: This study examines the role of the following MAPK: mitogen-activated extracellular-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 MAPK in the regulation of relaxation in the endothelium and smooth muscle. Method: Isometric tension of isolated porcine coronary artery rings were measured with organ chamber setup. The effects of MEK inhibitor, PD98059 (30 μM), ERK inhibitor, U0126 (10 μM) and p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 (10 μM), on relaxations induced by bradykinin (a vasodilating peptide), SKA-31 [an activator of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa and IKCa, respectively)], Deta NONOate (a nitric oxide donor) and forskolin (an adenylate cyclase activator) were examined in arteries with and without endothelium, contracted with an thromboxane A2 analog, U46619 (300 nM - 1 μM). In some experiments, rings were also incubated with the following pharmacological inhibitors, indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 10 μM), L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 300 μM), TRAM34 (IKCa blocker, 1 μM), and UCL1684 (SKCa blocker, 1 μM), alone or in combination. Results: 1. Bradykinin-induced relaxation was potentiated by MEK and ERK inhibition but not by p38 MAPK inhibition. 2. SKA-31-induced relaxation was potentiated by MEK and p38 MAPK inhibition but not by ERK inhibition. 3. Deta NONOate-induced relaxation was potentiated by MEK, p38 MAPK inhibition, but not by ERK inhibition except in the presence of indomethacin, TRAM-34 plus UCL1684. 4. Forskolin-induced relaxation was potentiated by MEK and p38 MAPK inhibition, but not by ERK inhibition. Discussion: MAPK plays a role in regulating the vascular tone in both the endothelium and smooth muscle of porcine coronary arteries. MEK appears to have an inhibitory action on relaxation that is downstream of the generation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, activation of IKCa and SKCa and activation of adenylate cyclase. ERK are unlikely to be the downstream target of MEK for inhibiting relaxation, in view of the lack of effects of its inhibitor on endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated and endothelium-independent relaxations. The involvement of ERK in relaxation pathways in the endothelium appears to be complicated, since U0126 caused opposing effects (inhibition and potentiation) on bradykinin-induced relaxation in the presence of indomethacin without and with L-NAME or TRAM-34 plus UCL1684. As inhibition of p38 MAPK results in potentiation of relaxations to all relaxing agents tested except bradykinin, this MAPK may have opposing action in the endothelium and smooth muscle; endothelial p38 MAPK may facilitate relaxation while smooth muscle p38 MAPK attenuates it. In conclusion, this study provided additional information on the influences of MEK, ERK and p38 MAPK on relaxation; this knowledge may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of vascular disorders. DOI: 10.5353/th_b
Release date NZ
January 27th, 2017
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Country of Publication
United States
colour illustrations
Open Dissertation Press
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