This new and significant book concentrates on brain mapping which is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps. All neuroimaging can be considered part of brain mapping. Brain mapping can be conceived as a higher form of neuroimaging, producing brain images supplemented by the result of additional (imaging or non-imaging) data processing or analysis, such as maps projecting (measures of) behaviour onto brain regions (see fMRI). Brain mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the development and refinement of image acquisition, representation, analysis, visualisation and interpretation techniques. Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of brain mapping.