Research Design that has helped more than 80,000 students and researchers prepare their plan or proposal for a scholarly journal article, dissertation or thesis has been revised and updated while maintaining all the features that made the First Edition so popular. New in the Second Edition: every chapter now shows how to implement a mixed method design as well as how to tackle quantitative and qualitative approaches; ethical issues have been added to a new section in Chapter 3; writing tips and considerations have been expanded and moved to the first part of the book to ensure research plans and proposals start in the right direction; the latest developments in qualitative inquiry (advocacy, participatory and emancipatory approaches) have been added to Chapter 10. Writing exercises conclude each chapter so that readers can practice the principles learned in the chapter, and, if all the exercises are completed have a written plan for their scholarly study. In addition, numbered points provide a handy checklist for each step in a process and annotated passages help the reader's comprehension of key research ideas.
Table of Contents
Preface Purpose Audience Format Outline of Chapters 1. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS Ch 1. A Framework for Design Three Elements of Inquiry Alternative Knowledge Claims Strategies of Inquiry Research Methods Three Approaches to Research Criteria for Selecting an Approach Personal Experiences Audience Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Ch 2. Review of the Literature Identifying a Topic A Researchable Topic Purpose of the Literature Review Literature Reviews in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Research Design Techniques Example 2.1 Review of a Quantitative Study Example 2.2 Review of a Study Advancing a Typology Style Manuals A Model for Writing the Literature Review Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Ch 3 Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations Writing the Proposal Central Arguments to Make Example 3.1 A Qualitative Constructivist/Interpretivist Format Example 3.2 A Qualitative Advocacy/Participatory Format Example 3.3 A Quantitative Format Example 3.4 A Mixed Methods Format Writing Tips Example 3.5 A Sample Passage Illustrating the Hook-and-Eye-Technique Ethical Issues to Anticipate Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Part 2 DESIGNING RESEARCH Ch 4 The Introduction The Importance of Introductions Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Introductions A Model for an Introduction Example 4.1 Deficiencies in the Literature - Needed Explorations Example 4.2 Deficiencies in the Literature - Few Studies Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Ch 5 The Purpose Statement Significance and Meaning of a Purpose Statement A Qualitative Purpose Statement Example 5.1 A Purpose Statement in a Qualitative Phenomenology Study Example 5.2 A Purpose Statement in a Case Study Example 5.3 A Purpose Statement in an Ethnographic Study A Quantitative Purpose Statement Example 5.4 A Purpose Statement in a Grounded Theory Study Example 5.5 A Purpose Statement in a Published Survey Study Example 5.6 A Purpose Statement in a Dissertation Survey Study Example 5.7 A Purpose Statement in a Experimental Study A Mixed Methods Purpose Statement Example 5.8 A Mixed Methods Purpose Statement, Convergent Strategy of Inquiry Example 5.9 A Mixed Methods Purpose Statement, Sequential Strategy of Inquiry Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Ch 6 Research Questions and Hypotheses Qualitative Research Questions Example 6.1 A Qualitative Central Question From an Ethnography Example 6.2 Central Questions From a Case Study Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses Example 6.3 A Null Hypothesis Example 6.4 Directional Hypotheses Example 6.5 Nondirectional and Directional Hypotheses Example 6.6 Standard Use of Language in Hypothesis Mixed Method Research Questions and Hypotheses Example 6.7 Descriptive and Inferential Questions Example 6.8 Hypotheses and Research Questions in a Mixed Methods Study Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Ch 7 The Use of Theory Quantitative Theory-Use Example 7.1 A Quantitative Theory Section Qualitative Theory-Use Example 7.2 An Example of Theory-Use Early in a Qualitative Study Example 7.3 A Theory at the End of a Qualitative Study Mixed Methods Theory-Use Example 7.4 A Transformative-Emancipatory Mixed Methods Study Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Ch 8 Definitions, Limitations, and Significance The Definition of Terms Example 8.1 Terms Defined in a Mixed Methods Dissertation Example 8.2 Terms Defined in an Independent Variables Section in a Quantitative Dissertation Delimitations and Limitations Example 8.3 A Delimitation and a Limitation in a Doctoral Dissertation Proposal Significance of the Proposed Study Example 8.4 Significance of the Study Stated in an Introduction to a Quantitative Study Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Ch 9 Quantitative Methods Defining Surveys and Experiments Components of a Survey Method Plan Example 9.1 An Example of a Survey Method Section Components of an Experimental Method Plan Example 9.2 Pre-Experimental Designs Example 9.3 Quasi-Experimental Designs Example 9.4 True Experimental Designs Example 9.5 Single-Subject Designs Threats to Validity Example 9.6 An Experimental Method Section Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Ch 10 Qualitative Procedures The Characteristics of Qualitative Research Strategies of Inquiry The Researcher's Role Data Collection Procedures Data Recording Procedures Data Analysis and Interpretation Validating the Accuracy of Findings The Qualitative Narrative Example 10.1 Qualitative Procedures Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings Ch 11 Mixed Methods Procedures Components of Mixed Methods Procedures The Nature of Mixed Methods Research Types of Mixed Methods Strategies Alternative Strategies and Visual Models Data Collection Procedures Data Analysis and Validation Procedures Report Presentation Structure Examples of Mixed Methods Procedures Example 11.1 A Sequential Strategy of Inquiry Example 11.2 A Concurrent Strategy of Inquiry Summary Writing Exercises Additional Readings References Author Index Subject Index About the Author
John W. Creswell is a Professor of Educational Psychology at Teachers College, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He is affiliated with a graduate program in educational psychology that specializes in quantitative and qualitative methods in education. In this program, he specializes in qualitative and quantitative research designs and methods, multimethod research, and faculty and academic leadership issues in colleges and universities.