The most comprehensive text on program evalation, providing an overview of a wide variety of approaches to evaluation and extensive practical guidelines for how to carry out evaluation studies successfully. This text helps both students and professionals who are new to evaluation to understand how the field has evolved , what different approaches an evaluator can take in conducting evaluations, and how to plan and conduct an evaluation. The text makes extensive use of checklists, examples, and a comprehensive case study. Finally, throughout the book, students are introduced to current trends and controversial issues in evaluation and ways to conduct evaluations in an ethical and professional manner.
Table of Contents
Preface-xiii PART ONE * Introduction to Evaluation-1 1 Evaluation's Basic Purpose, Uses, and Conceptual Distinctions-3 A Brief Definition of Evaluation-4 Informal versus Formal Evaluation-8 Distinguishing between Evaluation's Purposes and Evaluators' Roles and Activities-9 Some Basic Types of Evaluation-16 Evaluation's Importance--and Its Limitations-26 2 Origins and Current Trends in Modern Program Evaluation-30 The History and Influence of Evaluation in Society-30 Recent Trends Influencing Program Evaluation-44 PART TWO * Alternative Approaches to Program Evaluation-53 3 Alternative Views of Evaluation-57 Diverse Conceptions of Program Evaluation-58 Origins of Alternative Views of Evaluation-59 Themes among the Variations-67 A Classification Schema for Evaluation Approaches-68 4 Objectives-Oriented Evaluation Approaches-71 Developers of the Objectives-Oriented Evaluation Approach and Their Contributions-72 How the Objectives-Oriented Evaluation Approach Has Been Used-80 Strengths and Limitations of the Objectives-Oriented Evaluation Approach-82 5 Management-Oriented Evaluation Approaches-88 Developers of the Management-Oriented Evaluation Approach and Their Contributions-89 How the Management-Oriented Evaluation Approach Has Been Used-94 Strengths and Limitations of the Management-Oriented Evaluation Approach-95 6 Consumer-Oriented Evaluation Approaches-100 Developers of the Consumer-Oriented Evaluation Approach and Their Contributions-101 How the Consumer-Oriented Evaluation Approach Has Been Used-104 Strengths and Limitations of the Consumer-Oriented Evaluation Approach-108 7 Expertise-Oriented Evaluation Approaches-112 Developers of the Expertise-Oriented Evaluation Approach and Their Contributions-114 How the Expertise-Oriented Evaluation Approach Has Been Used-121 Strengths and Limitations of the Expertise-OrientedEvaluation Approach-123 8 Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches-129 Evolution of Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches-130 Developers of the Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approach and Their Contributions-131 How Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Have Been Used-145 Strengths and Limitations of Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches-146 9 Alternative Evaluation Approaches: A Summary and Comparative Analysis-152 Cautions about the Alternative Evaluation Approaches-153 Contributions of the Alternative Evaluation Approaches-158 Comparative Analysis of Characteristics of Alternative Evaluation Approaches-159 Eclectic Uses of the Alternative Evaluation Approaches-163 Drawing Practical Implications from the Alternative Evaluation Approaches-165 PART THREE * Practical Guidelines for Planning Evaluations-169 Introduction of Case Study-170 10 Clarifying the Evaluation Request and Responsibilities-173 Understanding the Reasons for Initiating the Evaluation-174 Conditions under which Evaluation Studies Are Inappropriate-178 Determining When an Evaluation Is Appropriate: Evaluability Assessment-182 Using an Internal or External Evaluator-185 Hiring an Evaluator-189 How Different Evaluation Approaches Clarify the Evaluation Request and Responsibilites-192 11 Setting Boundaries and Analyzing the Evaluation Context-199 Identifying Intended Audiences for an Evaluation-200 Describing What Is to Be Evaluated: Setting the Boundaries-203 Analyzing the Resources and Capabilities That Can Be Committed to the Evaluation-212 Analyzing the Political Context for the Evaluation-216 Variations Caused by the Evaluation Approach Used-217 Determining Whether to Proceed with the Evaluation-219 12 Identifying and Selecting the Evaluation Questions and Criteria-232 Identifying Appropriate Sources of Questions and Criteria: The Divergent Phase-234 Selecting the Questions, Criteria, and Issues to Be Addressed: The Convergent Phase-246 Remaining Flexible during the Evaluation: Allowing New Questions,Criteria, and Standards to Emerge-253 13 Planning How to Conduct the Evaluation-260 Identifying Design and Data Collection Methods-262 Specifying How the Evaluation Will Be Conducted: The Management Plan-275 Establishing Evaluation Agreements and Contracts-285 PART FOUR * Practical Guidelines for Conducting and Using Evaluations-301 14 Collecting Evaluation Information: Design, Sampling, and Cost Choices-303 Using Mixed Methods-304 Designs for Collecting Causal and Descriptive Information-307 Sampling-320 Cost Analysis-324 15 Collecting Evaluation Information: Data Sources and Methods, Analysis, and Interpretation-334 Common Sources and Methods for Collecting Information-335 Planning and Organizing the Collection of Information-356 Analysis of Data and Interpretation of Findings-358 16 Reporting and Using Evaluation Information-375 Purposes of Evaluation Reports-376 Important Factors in Planning Evaluation Reports-377 Key Components of a Written Report-382 Suggestions for Presenting Information in Written Reports-388 Alternative Methods for Reporting: The Adversary Approach-394 Human and Humane Considerations in Reporting Evaluation Findings-395 Suggestions for Effective Oral Reporting-398 A Checklist for Good Evaluation Reports-400 How Evaluation Information Is Used-400 17 Dealing with Political, Ethical, and Interpersonal Aspects of Evaluation-411 Establishing and Maintaining Good Communications among Evaluators and Stakeholders-412 Understanding Potential Bias Resulting from the Evaluator's Personal Values and Interpersonal, Financial, and Organizational Relationships with Others-415 Maintaining Ethical Standards: Considerations, Issues, and Responsibilities for Evaluators and Clients-423 Political Pressures and Problems in Evaluation-432 18 Evaluating Evaluations-442 The Concept and Evolution of Metaevaluation-443 The Joint Committee's Standards for Program Evaluation-444 Summary of the Program Evaluation Standards-445 AEA Guiding Principles for Evaluators-449 The Role of Metaevaluator-451 Some General Guidelines for Conducting Metaevaluations-453 A Need for More Metaevaluation-455 PART FIVE * Emerging and Future Settings for Program Evaluation-461 19 Conducting Multiple-Site Evaluation Studies-463 Purposes and Characteristics of Multiple-Site Evaluations-464 Multisite Evaluation (MSE)-466 On-Site Evaluation at Multiple Sites-471 Cluster Evaluation-475 Other Approaches to Multiple-Site Evaluation-481 20 Conducting Evaluation of Organizations' Renewal and Training in Corporate and Nonprofit Settings-485 Evaluation in the Nonprofit Sector-486 Evaluating Corporate Training Programs-491 Personnel Evaluation-495 Other Methods of Organizational Assessment-497 21 The Future of Evaluation-507 The Future of Evaluation-508 Predictions concerning the Profession of Evaluation-508 Predictions concerning the Practice of Evaluation-510 A Vision for Evaluation-513 Conclusion-513 Suggested Readings-514 APPENDIX-Evaluation-Related Web Sites-515 References-519 Author Index-543 Subject Index-551