Renowned for being THE definitive source of homicide investigation, Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics, Procedures, and Forensic Techniques is the recognized protocol used by investigative divisions of major police departments throughout the world. It is also the text used in most police academies, including the prestigious FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. It emphasizes essential procedures, combines detailed techniques with instructive case studies, and outlines the foundation on which to build a solid, prosecutable case. The fundamental criminal investigative techniques stressed in the Fourth Edition are crucial for effective inquiry into sudden and violent death. Eminent author, lecturer, consultant, and expert witness Vernon J. Geberth begins the book with a comprehensive discussion of homicide crime scenes. The book evolves chronologically from initial police notification, the correct police response that follows, and the subsequent steps necessary to conduct an intelligent investigation. It then delves into more technical aspects of homicide investigation, augmented with numerous pictures and full-color illustrations that involve pertinent case histories.
The book features two new chapters along with major revisions of those from the previous edition. In addition it contains 675 photos and illustrations - including 300 new entries that incorporate depictions of wound structures and procedures that portray exactly what to do and how to do it. All illustrations are presented in full color, including new medical-legal drawings for instruction and courtroom testimony. Vernon Geberth was featured in an interview on News 14 Carolina in Fayetteville discussing his 3-day seminar on Practical Homicide Investigation.
Table of Contents
The Homicide Crime Scene The Five Components of Practical Homicide Investigation The Crime Scene At the Crime Scene The Homicide Investigation Starts at the Crime Scene Determining the Dimensions of the Homicide Crime Scene Protecting the Crime Scene The Homicide Crime Scene Sign-In Sheet The Preliminary Investigation at the Primary Crime Scene Victimology Equivocal Death Investigations The Staged Crime Scene Introduction Types of Crime Scene Staging Example of Homicide Made to Appear an Accident Example of a Homicide Made to Appear Sex Related Conclusion Investigative Strategies Selected Reading First Officer's Duties: General Notification of a Possible Homicide: the Official Notification to the Police First Notification of Homicide Received in Person by Patrol Officer First Officer's Duties on Arrival at the Scene Protection of Life Safeguarding the Scene and Detaining Witnesses or Suspects The First Officer Initiates the Homicide Investigation Dealing with Emergencies at the Scene Conclusion Selected Reading First Officer's Duties: Specific The Suspect in Custody Transporting the Suspect Examination of the Suspect for Evidence The Dying Declaration The Victim Removed to the Hospital The Victim Pronounced DOA at the Hospital The Officer's Duties at the Hospital The Victim Confirmed DOA at the Scene Handling Witnesses at the Scene Additional Officers at the Scene Handling News Media Personnel at the Scene The Documentation of Events by the First Officer The Changing Sequence of Command Patrol Officer's Checklist Initial Call/Receipt of Information Arrival at the Homicide Crime Scene Protection of the Crime Scene Notifications Preliminary Investigation Suspect in Custody Suicide and Accidental Death The Preliminary Investigation at the Scene: The Detectives Initial Receipt of Information Arrival at the Scene Preliminary Steps to Be Taken by Detectives upon Arrival - Checklist Describing the Scene Implementing Crime Scene Procedures Direction of Uniformed Personnel at the Scene The Teamwork Approach Directing the Investigation at the Scene Duties of the Detective Supervisor on Arrival at the Scene Preliminary Interview of the First Officer Interview of Ambulance Personnel Handling Curious Onlookers Handling Witnesses at the Scene The Canvass The Preliminary Medical Examination at the Scene Special Procedure to Follow in Specific Cases Case Examples Conclusion References Specific Investigative Duties at the Scene The Suspect in Custody Interview and Interrogation of the Suspect in Custody Examination of a Suspect for Evidence Evaluation of the Suspect's Demeanor and Mental Capacity Obtaining a Dying Declaration Questions to Be Asked in a Dying Declaration Documentation of the Dying Declaration Handling Buried-Body Cases The Discovery of the Buried Body Initial Response The Excavation The Body Search for a Buried Body The Investigative Checklist Documentation of the Initial Report Initial Receipt of Information Arrival at the Homicide - Death Scene Preliminary Inspection of the Body at the Crime Scene Implement Crime Scene Control Procedures Initiate a Crime Scene Log Establish a Policy for Crime Scene Integrity Establish a Command Post or Temporary Headquarters Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and Ambulance Personnel Initiate a Canvass Weapons The Suspect in Custody Suspect in Custody: Interrogation at the Scene A.D.A.P.T. Crime Scene Photographs Documentation of Crime Scene Photographs Recommended Crime Scene Photographs The Crime Scene Sketch The Crime Scene Search Dust for Fingerprints Description of the Deceased Preliminary Medical Examination at the Scene Victim - Hospital Information Evidence Process and Control Procedures Release of the Homicide Crime Scene Suicide Investigation - Investigative Considerations Evaluation of the Wounds Psychological State of the Victim Any Prior Mental Disease or Defect Recognized Warning Signs in Suicides Extreme Danger Signs in Suicides Autoerotic Fatalities (Accidental Asphyxia): Investigative Considerations Investigating Fatal Fires The Investigative Considerations The Fire Incident Suspicious Designation: General Determination Factors Maintenance of the Fire Crime Scene Investigation at the Scene Determination of Arson Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Investigative Checklist Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Warning Signs References Selected Reading The Crime Scene Photographs The Value of Crime Scene Photographs Crime Scene Photography and the Investigator Admissibility of Photographic Evidence Photographing the Homicide Crime Scene Outdoor Locations Indoor Locations The Body Suspects Type of Film Recommended Crime Scene Photographs Practical Application of Crime Scene Photography The World Trade Center Attack The Polaroid Macro 5 SLR Camera The Panoscan MK-3 Digital Panoramic Camera System Examples Videotaping Advantages of Videotaping Purpose of Videotaping the Crime Scene Recommended Procedure Videotape Protocol Arrival at Scene Taping Protocol Videotaping Suspect Statements Conclusion References Selected Reading The Crime Scene Sketch The Sketch Preparing the Crime Scene Sketch Utilizing Aerial Photographs for Mapping Outdoor Crime Scenes The "Total Station" Crime Scene Reconstruction Program Definition Operation Practical Application References Selected Reading The Homicide Crime Scene Search Legal Considerations Warrantless Searches Where Suspect Shares Possessory Right to Premises Practical Examples of Reasonableness: Officers Arriving at Scene of Violent Crime Physical Evidence Types of Physical Evidence The Concept of Linkage Methods of Crime Scene Search Formulating the Search The Homicide Kit Crime Scene Integrity Kit Evidence Collection Tools Fingerprint Kit Photography Kit Sketching and Mapping Kit Casting Kit Evidence Collection Containers Lasers and Alternate Light Sources (ALS) The Search Examination of the Body at the Scene Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Release of the Body The Scene Processing a Vehicle (See Chapter 17) Examining the Outdoor Scene Examples of Evidence Found Outdoors Examination of an Outdoor Scene at Night Physical Examination of a Suspect in Custody Gunshot Residue Testing Release of the Scene Crime Scene Process Protective Equipment and Clothing Antiputrefaction Masks Crime Scene Protocol for Protection from Airborne Pathogens and Other Biohazards Communicable Diseases Required Precautions Decontamination of Equipment Decontamination of Clothing Precautions Prevention Exposure of First Responders Exposure to Blood-Borne Diseases Infection Control Techniques Universal Precautions Body Substance Isolation Exposure Treatment Conclusion References Selected Reading Estimating Time of Death The Process of Dying Body Changes after Death External Agents of Change Insects Plants Animals Bodies in Water Information Derived from the Scene Conclusion Selected Reading The Identity of the Deceased The Identification Identification at the Scene Personal Identification Clothing and Possessions Identification by Photographs Description of the Body Clothing Jewelry and Watches Fingerprints Obtaining Fingerprints from Dead Bodies Mass Fatality Events The World Trade Center Attack Mass Fatality Considerations DNA Testing in the Identification of WTC Victims The Iceman Case Dr. Zugibe's Medical Evaluation Forensic Evaluation The Teeth Age General Facial Characteristics Race Socioeconomic Group Occupation or Habits Positive Identification Bite-Mark Identification Inquiries Relative to Forensic Odontology The Bones Age Sex Race Height and Other Individual Characteristics Determination of Cause of Death Determination of Whether Bones Are Human or Animal Examination of Bones Facial Reconstruction Forensic Art Introduction to Forensic Art Four Categories of Forensic Art Forensic Art in Identification of Human Remains Postmortem Drawing Two-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction from the Skull Three-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction on the Skull Methods of Superimposition Conclusion References Selected Reading Death Notifications: The Surviving Family as Secondary Victims Psychological Reactions to Death The Normal Grieving Process The Stages of Grief Psychological Reactions to Murder Psychological Reactions to Murdered Children Psychological Reactions to the Murder of Police Officers Notifications of Death by the Homicide Detective Recommendations and Guidelines for Proper Death Notifications to Surviving Family Members Providing Information to the Surviving Family Guiding the Surviving Family through the Criminal Justice System Conclusion Victim's Assistance Organizations References Selected Reading Modes of Death Gunshot Wounds The Projectile Striking the Body The Nature and Extent of Gunshot Wounds Smudging or Smoke Searing Tattooing or Stippling Reentry Ricocheting Shotgun Wounds Contact Wounds Bullet Track Cutting Wounds Stabbing Wounds Blunt Force Injuries Lacerations Chopping Wounds Deaths by Asphyxia Strangulation Investigative Considerations Hanging Drowning Inhalation of Poison Gases Suffocation General Forms of Suffocation Deaths by Fire Severity of Burn Injuries Investigative Considerations Scalding Burns Arson Poisons Deaths Caused by Injection Sexual Asphyxia: The Phenomenon of Autoerotic Fatalities Introduction Preliminary Investigation at the Scene Atypical Autoerotic Deaths Asphyxial Deaths - The Pathology of Autoerotic Death The Reality of Asphyxial Death - Videotaped Cases Equivocal Death Investigations Sexual Asphyxia - the Psychosexual Aspects of Autoerotic Activity Female Victims of Autoerotic Fatality Equivocal Death Investigation Crime Scene The Victim Investigative Considerations Opinion Results Notifying and Advising the Surviving Family of the Mode of Death Investigative Considerations Determining the Involvement of Sexual Asphyxia: Autoerotic Checklist Summary References Selected Reading Suicide Investigation Risk Factors Depression: A Clinical Perspective Emotional Symptoms Cognitive Symptoms Motivational Symptoms Somatic Symptoms Clinical Scenario Other Motives for Suicide The Investigation Staging a Scene Investigative Considerations The Weapon Wounds Medicolegal Analysis Summary Bizarre Suicides Suicide by Blasting Cap Suicide by Fireplace Attempted Suicide - Self-Mutilation Barrel of Gun in Suicide Victim's Head Equivocal Death Investigations Motives and Intent Suicide Notes Background Information Psychological Autopsy Warning Signs Extreme Danger Signs Investigative Considerations Evaluation of the Wounds Psychological State of the Victim Any Prior Mental Disease or Defect Final Exit Suicide Investigations Introduction Synopsis of Contents Investigative Considerations Letters to Be Written Police Investigation Self-Deliverance via the Plastic Bag Police Investigation The Final Act Police Investigation Investigative Checklist for Final Exit Cases Recommendations Conclusion Staged Crime Scenes Involving Final Exit Suicide-by-Cop Introduction Example Early Example Clinical Interpretations The Psychopathology of Suicide-by-Cop Scenarios Hostage Situations Psychological Ramifications for Police Officers Involved in Suicide-by-Cop Incidents The Racial Component in Police-Related Shooting Incidents Investigative Considerations References Selected Reading The Investigation of Sex-Related Homicides Introduction The Crime Scene Investigation Sex-Related Crime Scene Checklist Method for Diagnosing Abrasions, Lacerations, and Other Skin Disruptions in the Perineum and Perianal Areas Human Sexuality and Sexual Deviance Determining Motivation Significance of Fantasy in Sex-Related Incidents Organized and Disorganized Offenders The Organized Offender The Disorganized Offender Classifications Interpersonal Violence-Oriented Disputes and Assaults Rape- and/or Sodomy-Oriented Assault Investigative Strategy Categories of Rapists Deviant-Oriented Assault - the Lust Murder Anatomy of Lust Murder Psychodynamics1 The Serial Murder The Serial Killer Profile Organized Serial Killer Activities Disorganized Serial Killer Activities Serial Murder Investigation Command Responsibilty Linkage Blindnesss Typical Serial Murder Task Force The Typical Serial Killer Three Main Methods Used to Link Murders Investigative Considerations A Clinical Perspective Conclusion References Selected Reading Homosexual Homicides Introduction Homosexual Relationships Homosexual Lifestyles - Investigative Considerations Interpersonal Violence-Oriented Disputes and Assaults Murders Involving Forced Anal Rape and/or Sodomy Lust Murders and Other Acts of Sexual Perversion Homosexual Serial Murders Investigative Significance Psychological Considerations Robbery/Homicide of Homosexuals Homophobic Assault and "Gay-Bashing" Incidents Conclusion References Selected Reading Forensic Application of DNA Analysis Introduction Deoxyribonucleic Acid - DNA. The Cell Molecular Biology of the Cell Structure and Function of DNA Nuclear DNA Y-Chromosomal DNA Mitochondrial DNA Techniques and Procedures in Forensic DNA Analysis Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence Scheduling Analysis DNA Extraction Differential DNA Extraction DNA Quantification DNA Amplification (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Multiplex PCR Analysis STR Multiplex PCR Analysis Amplification of mtDNA DNA Detection and Analysis STR DNA Analysis mtDNA Analysis STR DNA Databases Population Statistics CODIS National Missing Persons DNA Database The Choice of Analysis Admissibility of DNA Evidence Laboratory Accreditation Forensic DNA Case Studies Victim Identification Conclusion References Selected Reading Collection of Evidence Procedures for Collection of Evidence General Types of Evidence Classifications of Physical Evidence Class Evidence Individualistic Evidence Collection of Specific Types of Evidence Body Materials Blood (Wet) Blood Stains (Dry) Field Test Reagents Semen Urine Saliva or Spittle Feces Vomit Tissue Hair Objects Bullets Discharged Casings or Cartridges Shotgun Shells Live Cartridges or Rounds of Ammunition Shotgun Wadding Weapons Firearms Fibers Fabric Cigarette/Cigar Butts Displaced Furniture Soil Tools Vehicles Clothing Documents (Letters, Notes, Papers) Glass Impressions Fingerprint Examination Protein Enhancement Reagents Fatty Acid, Elements, and Compounds Enhancement Reagents Tire Tracks and Footprints Tool Marks Bite Marks Bullet Holes Newly Damaged Areas References Selected Reading The Autopsy The Medical Examiner/Coroner Investigation of Death Cause, Mechanism, and Manner of Death Practical Application of Terminology Purpose of the Autopsy Investigative Information Provided by the Autopsy The Medicolegal Autopsy Examination of the Crime Scene Identification of the Body External Examination of the Body Preliminary Procedure The External Examination Internal Examination of the Body The Head The Chest The Abdomen The Pelvic Cavity The Protocol Summary Human Anatomy Directional Terms Body Cavities Dorsal Cavity Ventral Cavity Quadrants The Skeletal System The Heart References Selected Reading The News Media in Homicide Investigations Establishing a News Media Policy Building a Relationship with the News Media Homicide News Release Policy Offering Rewards Handling the News Media at the Scene Preparing the News Release Handling Questions During News Conferences Conclusion Selected Reading Identification of Suspects Bite-Mark Identification The Bite Mark. Collection of Bite-Mark Evidence at the Scene Photographs of the Bite-Mark Wound Saliva Washings Interpretation of the Bite-Mark Evidence Examination of the Bite Mark Summary Hypnosis What Is Hypnosis? Psychodynamics Value to the Investigator Shortcomings of Hypnosis Summary Latent Prints on Human Skin General Considerations Procedures Fingerprint from Human Skin Using the Magna-Brush Technique Polygraph Examinations The Examination Possible Subjects for Polygraph Examinations Subjects That Cannot Be Tested Investigator's Duties prior to the Examination Polygraph Procedures Summary Psycholinguistics What Is Psycholinguistic Analysis? Methodology Psycholinguistics as an Investigative Tool Utilizing Psycholinguistic Analysis Summary Psychics What Is a Psychic? Police and Psychics Summary Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Introduction Munchausen Syndrome - History and Application Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) - History and Application The Investigative Response Team Approach Collection of Evidence Interviewing the Munchausen Syndrome-Related Offender Summary Homicides Involving Theft of a Fetus Introduction Infant Abductions - Infant Cut from Mother's Womb Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 Attempted Theft of Fetus Offender Killed by Victim Mother Case 8 Investigative Assessment and Analysis The Offender Profiles Offender Motive Investigative Strategies Abduction Police Response Detective Response Additional Information Summary Stalkers Introduction Stalkers Orders of Protection Anti-Stalker Legislation Types of Stalkers The Psychopathic Personality Stalker The Psychotic Personality Stalker Erotomania Involving Obsessed Fans and Stalkers Law Enforcement Response to Stalker Incidents Summary VICAP, Statewide and Regional Information Systems The Violent Criminal Apprehension Program - VICAP Profiling and Consultation Program The Regional Organized Crime Information Center Submission of Cases The Homicide Investigation and Tracking System (HITS) Acknowledgments References Selected Reading Bite Mark Identification Hypnosis Latent Prints on Human Skin Psycholinguistics Psychics Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy Stalkers VI-CAP, State-Wide and Regional Information Systems Investigative Assessment: Criminal Personality Profiling Introduction History of Profiling Application of Abnormal Psychology Criminal Personality Profile The Purpose of the Profile When Profiling Can Be Productive Factors That Can Be Determined by a Criminal Personality Profile The Investigative Approach to Profiling Investigative Assessment - The Profiling Process Clinical Considerations and Descriptions of Behavior The Psychopathic Personality Psychotic Personality (The Psychosis) Sexual Sadism (302.84 DSM-IV) Psychopathic Sexual Sadists Crime Scene and Profile: Characteristics of Organized and Disorganized Murderers The Organized Offender General Behavior Characteristics Overland Park Police Information Missing Persons' Cases Lenexa Police Investigation Tactics Background Information Investigative Information Internet Information Additional Information Robinson, the "Slave Master" Vickie Jeanna Investigative Break Second Investigative Break Investigative Status in May 2001 Tactical Decision The Arrest and Execution of Search Warrants Search of the Kansas Storage Locker The Linn County Search Raymore, Missouri, Storage Unit Sheila and Debbie Beverly Task Force Investigation Revelations Bizarre Twist in the Case Disposition Acknowledgments The Disorganized Offender General Behavior Characteristics Ted Bundy: Serial Killer - Offender Profile Offender Profile Program Background Investigative Analysis Postcrime Behavior Conclusion Additional Information on Ted Bundy Investigative Considerations Criminal Personality Profiling - The Signature Aspect in Criminal Investigation Clinical Perspective Investigative Perspective Linkage Blindness Investigative Application of the "Signature" Aspect Signature Aspect Signature Aspect Signature Aspect The Suspect Evidence Signature Aspect of the Crimes Practical Examples of Signature Activity21 Conclusion Geographic Profiling Investigative Elements to Consider in Geographic Profiling Investigative Elements in the Criminal Case Assessment Process Types of Crime Locations Investigative Considerations The Police Investigation A Psychology of Evil A Model for a Psychology of Evil Conclusion References Selected Reading Equivocal Death Investigation Equivocal Death Investigations Initiating the Investigation Case Number 1: An Equivocal Death and Staged Crime Scene - Making a Homicide Appear to Be a Suicide Introduction The Crime Scene The Police Investigation The Autopsy Consultative Analysis Investigative Considerations Victimology Investigative Issues Critique of Police Investigation Forensic Pathologist Report Evaluation of the Weapon and the Wound Structure Response to Insurance Company Medical Expert Opinion Case Number 2: An Equivocal Death Investigation with Staged Crime Scene Death Classified as Undetermined Manner Introduction The Initial Police Investigation Initial Detective Investigation Initial Medical Examiner Investigation Autopsy Findings The Follow-Up Medical Examiner Investigation The Follow-Up Police Investigation Investigative Assessment and Analysis Initial Response Review of the Police and Medical Examiner Investigators' Reports The Ligature Victimology Conclusion Case Number 3: An Equivocal Death - Homicide or Suicide? Introduction Case Facts U.S. Army Autopsy Report Case# ME98-006 USACID Position Second Medicolegal Examination Requested by Family Investigative Assessment and Analysis NYS Medicolegal Analysis Conducted for the National Guard Preliminary Consultative Reports USACID Follow-Up Medical Significance of the Wound Structures Review of Medicolegal Findings Final Report Conclusion Opinion Case Number 4: Staged Crime Scene - Homicide or Suicide? References Selected Reading Narcotic-Related Homicides Introduction The Drug-Related Murder: The Investigative Dilemma The Drug-Related Murder and the Investigative Reality The Three-Phase Strategy Phase 1 - The Homicide Crime Scene Phase 2 - The Application of Drug Intelligence Phase 3 - Crime Clearance Procedures Conclusion References Practical Homicide Investigation: Supervision and Management of the Homicide Investigation Management Policy Police Department Policy Criminal Investigation Management Major Pitfalls to Practical Homicide Case Management Procedures for Effective Management and Supervision of Homicide Investigation Supervisor's Homicide Checklist Supervising the Preliminary Investigation at the Scene Directing Specific Investigative Duties Supervising Homicide Crime Scene Search Providing for the Effective Documentation of Events Case Management Documentation Note Keeping Official Reports First Day of Investigation Indexing the Homicide Investigation News Clipping File Conducting the Investigative Conference Investigation of Police-Related Shootings (OIS/Use of Deadly Force Incidents) Protocol1 Introduction Assigning Investigative Responsibility Investigation of OIS/Use of Deadly Force Incident IV. Interview of Employees Involved V. Taped Interview of Employees Involved VI. Follow-Up Investigation VII. Background Investigation VIII. Preparation of Investigative Report IX. Conclusion Checklist Apprehension of Homicide Fugitives Use of Wanted Posters Distribution of Photographs and Information Flyers to Patrol Cell Phones Pagers Planning the Apprehension Assessment of Physical Hazards The Tactical Plan The Tactical Operation Notification to Central Communications by Land Line Hospital Personnel Briefing Equipment Cold Case Investigations Conclusion Epilogue References Glossary Index