For students ready to advance in their study of metals, this textbook provides greater depth and detail than most introductory materials courses do. The author introduces ternary diagrams, the Kirkendall effect and diffusion in multiphase systems, the thermodynamic basis for solid solubility, stacking faults, and hydrogen embrittlement. The book includes an introductory metals chapter followed by topics that are common to all metals, chapters on specific nonferrous metal systems, and concluding chapters on optional subjects, such as powder metallurgy, corrosion, welding, and magnetic alloys. With ample references, problems, and examples, this text is a superb tool any advanced materials science course.
Table of Contents
Preface INTRODUCTION Metallic Elements Price and Abundance Miscellany and Problems FREEZING Introduction Liquid Metals Nucleation Growth Ingot Structure Segregation During Freezing Zone Refining Steady State Dendritic Growth Length and Spacing of Dendrite Arms Consequences of Dendritic Growth Gas Solubility and Gas Porosity Growth of Single Crystals Eutectic Solidification Peritectic Freezing Metal glasses Miscellany, References, and Problems DIFFUSION Fick's1ST Law Fick's 2nd Law Solutions to Fick's 2nd Law Mechanisms of Diffusion Kirkendall Effect Special Diffusion Paths Darken's Equation Diffusion in Systems with More Than ONE phase Miscellany, References, and Problems SURFACES Direct Measurements of Surface Energy Measurements of Relative Surface Energies Wetting Angles of Surface Energy to Bonding Anisotropy of Surface Energy Segregation to Surfaces Data on Various Systems Miscellany, References, and Problems SOLID SOLUTIONS Types of Solid Solutions Electron-to-Atom Ratio Entropy of Mixing Enthalpy of Mixing Free Energy Change on Mixing Equilibrium Vacancy and Interstitial Concentrations Ordered vs. Random Solid Solutions Miscellany, References, and Problems INTERMEDIATE PHASES Hume-Rothery or Electron Phases Covalent Compounds Ionic Compounds Interstitial Compounds Laves Compounds Miscellany, References, and Problems PHASE DIAGRAMS Review of Binary Phase Diagrams Invariant Reactions Lever Law The Gibb's Phase Rule Ternary Phase Diagrams Miscellany, References, and Problems DISLOCATIONS The Nature of Dislocations Energy of a Screw Dislocation Burgers Vector Notation Reactions Between Parallel Dislocations and Frank's Rule Stress Fields Around Dislocations Forces on Dislocations Partial Dislocations in Fcc Crystals Stacking Faults Cross Slip Miscellany, References, and Problems ANNEALING General Recovery Recrystallization Avrami Kinetics Analysis of Grain Shape Grain Growth Limiting Grain Size Summary of Grain Growth Summary for the Chapter Miscellany, References, and Problems PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS Classification of Phase Changes Martensitic Transformations Spinodal Decomposition Nucleation Growth Overall Kinetics Precipitation from Supersaturated Solid Solution Precipitation Hardening Kinetics Growth of Precipitates Precipitation Kinetics Hardening Mechanism Ostwald Ripening Practical Age-Hardening Treatments Additional Comments Aluminum -- Copper Alloys Habit Miscellany, References, and Problems ALUMINUM ALLOYS Uses Alloys Wrought Alloys Casting Alloys Powder-Processing Corrosion Resistance Aluminum-Lithium Alloys Miscellany, References, and Problems COPPER AND NICKEL ALLOYS Commercially Pure Copper Copper-Zinc Alloys Bronzes Lead Additions Copper-Nickel Alloys Beryllium cOpper Corrosion Nickel-Base Alloys Miscellany, References, and Problems HEXAGONAL METALS General Zinc Magnesium Titanium Zirconium Beryllium Miscellany, References, and Problems OTHER NONFERROUS ALLOYS Lead Tin Gold Silver Platinum Metals Group VA and VIA Metals Alloys with Special Physical Properties Metals and Alloys with Low Melting Points Miscellaneous Metals Miscellany, References, and Problems STEELS Microstructures of Carbon Steels Kinetics of Pearlite Formation Alloying Elements in Steel Isothermal Transformation Diagrams Continuous Cooling Diagrams Martensite Special Heat Treatments Miscellany, References, and Problems HARDENING OF STEELS Hardenability: Jominey End-Quench Test Ideal Diameter Calculations Boron Martensite and Retained Austenite Miscellany, References, and Problems TEMPERING AND SURFACE HARDENING Tempering Secondary Hardening Temper Embrittlement Carburizing Nitriding Carbonitriding Case Hardening without Composition Change Furnace Atmospheres Miscellany, References, and Problems LOW CARBON STEELS Sheet Steels Special Grades Coatings Special Concerns Miscellany, References, and Problems SPECIAL STEELS Stainless Steels Hadfield Austenitic Manganese Steel Maraging Steels Trip Steels Tool Steels Silicon Steels Miscellany, References, and Problems CAST IRONS General White Iron Gray Irons Ductile Irons Malleable Iron Matrices Miscellany, References, and Problems WELDING Welding without Melting Resistance Welding Arc Welding Heat Distribution Torch Welding Metallurgy of Welding Residual Stresses and Distortion Braze-Welding of Cast Iron Brazing and Soldering Joint Design Hard Facing Miscellany, References, and Problems POWDER PROCESSING Powders Powder Pressing Sintering Sintering -- Later Stage Liquid Phase Sintering Activated Sintering Hot Pressing Strength and Ductility Miscellany, References, and Problems CORROSION Corrosion Cells Current Density Polarization Passivation Corrosion Control Rust Direct Oxidation Hydrogen Embrittlement Hydride Formation Miscellany, References, and Problems MAGNETIC MATERIALS General Magnetostatic Energy Magnetocrystalline Energy Magnetostriction Physical Units B-H Curve Curie Temperature Bloch walls Soft vs. Hard Magnetic Materials Soft Magnetic Materials Hard Magnetic Materials Summary Miscellany, References, and Problems APPENDIX A: MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ASTM Grain Size Number Linear Intercept Grain Size Relation of Grain Boundary Area Per Volume to Linear Intercept Relation of the Number of Intersections Per Area to the Length of Line Per Volume Dihedral Angles Microstructural Relationships References Problems APPENDIX B: STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION The Stereographic Projection Locating the Hk Pole in the Standard Projection of a Cubic Crystal Problems APPENDIX C: MILLER-BRAVAIS INDICES FOR HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS Miller-Bravais Indices for Hexagonal Crystals Planar Indices Direction Indices Problems