This book is a compact and simultaneously comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of optical spectroscopy. The author skillfully leads the reader from the basics to practical applications. The main topics covered are: -- theory of optical spectroscopy -- components of spectrometers (light sources, filters, lenses and mirror chromators, detectors, cuvettes) -- evaluation of data and interpretation of spectra Such important methods as absorption and luminescence spectroscopy, scattering and reflection spectroscopy, photoaccustic spectroscopy, spectroscopy of atoms, polarimetry and near infrared spectroscopy are covered in depth. A useful appendix with the addresses of pertinent equipment manufacturers rounds off the work.
Table of Contents
Preface. 1 Introduction to Optical Spectroscopy. 1.1 Overview. 1.2 History of Optical Spectroscopy. 1.3 Selected Further Reading. 2 Fundamental Principles. 2.1 The Nature of Light. 2.2 Electromagnetic Radiation. 2.3 Interaction of Light and Matter. 2.4 Selected Further Reading. 3 Optics for Spectroscopy. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Physical Light Units. 3.3 Photometric Light Units. 3.4 Light Sources. 3.5 Geometric Optics and Wave Optics. 3.6 Monochromators. 3.7 Photodetectors. 3.8 Cuvettes. 3.9 Selected Further Reading. 4 Spectroscopy of Atoms. 4.1 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. 4.2 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. 4.3 Interferences. 4.4 Selected Further Reading. 5 Molecular Absorption Spectroscopy. 5.1 The Bouguer-Lambert-Beer Law. 5.2 Monochromators. 5.3 Absorption Properties of Molecules. 5.4 Modification of Absorption Spectra. 5.5 Dual Wavelength Spectrophotometry. 5.6 Spectrophotometers for Specific Applications. 5.7 Selected Further Reading. 6 Luminescence Spectrophotometry. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Mechanisms Involved in Fluorescence. 6.3 Fluorescence Measurement. 6.4 Polarization and Anisotropy. 6.5 Fluorescence Lifetime. 6.6 Selected Topics. 6.7 Phosphorescence. 6.8 Chemo- and Photobioluminescence. 6.9 Delayed Luminescence. 6.10 Selected Further Reading. 7 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Basic Principle of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS). 7.3 Theory of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy. 7.4 Experimental Methods. 7.5 Photochemically Active Samples. 7.6 Selected PAS Techniques. 7.7 Resume and Outlook. 7.8 Selected Further Reading. 8 Scattering, Diffraction and Reflection. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Elastic Scattering. 8.3 Raman Scattering Versus Infrared Spectroscopy. 8.4 Rainbows. 8.5 Reflection Spectroscopy. 8.6 Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy (ATRS). 8.7 Selected Further Reading. 9 Circular Dichroism and Optical Rotation. 9.1 Polarized Light: a Generalization. 9.2 Optical Rotatory Dispersion (ORD). 9.3 Circular Dichroism (CD). 9.4 Theoretical Basis of the Cotton Effect. 9.5 The CD Spectrometer. 9.6 Applications. 9.7 Ellipsometry. 9.8 Closing Comments. 9.9 Selected Further Reading. 10 Near-infrared Spectroscopy. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Theory of Near-infrared Spectroscopy. 10.3 The Infrared Spectrometer. 10.4 Presentation of Near-infrared Spectra. 10.5 Algorithms for the Analysis of Near-infrared Spectra. 10.6 Applications. 10.7 Summary. 10.8 Selected Further Reading. Appendix. A1 Conversion Factors for Units of Energy. A2 Important Natural Constants. A3 Manufacturers and Distributors (representative selection). A4 Periodic Table of the Elements. A5 Index.
Werner Schmidt studied physics and biology at the universities of Berlin and Freiburg. After his PhD in biophysics he carried out his postdoc under Prof. W. L. Butler at UCSD, San Diego and Prof. K. Poff, at East Lansing, Michigan, USA. He gained his lecturing qualification in 1983 and became Professor of Biophysics at the University of Constance, Germany in 1996. Professor Schmidt is currently working on the sensory physiology of plants and microorganisms, particularly on responses to light and gravity and the corresponding primary molecular reactions. These investigations necessarily require the study of membrane properties and reactions, as well as the development of novel and highly sensitive opto procedures and apparatuses, activities which have resulted in patents and industrial cooperation.