Central to the theme of this book is that there are two main survival instincts, that of the species and that of the individual. These instincts which are almost certainly genetically derived are responsible in the individual for psychological behaviour and in the mass for sociological behaviour. The author has argued, principally from a Darwinian standpoint, that the same instincts played a key role in the evolution of intelligence for which he advances well reasoned arguments. He has attempted to demonstrate that all ethics is traceable to the survival of the species and therefore astonishingly may be genetical in origin.Somewhere between the two lies the survival of the group urge which is responsible for such phenomena as nationalism and racism.It is implied herein cooperative endeavour is superior to conflict and competition, a situation of weak conflict, can never be fair because the struggle for survival brings out the worst in us. Indeed if cooperation on a global scale does not succeed there is a hint of doom on the horizon for all humankind.