This, the fourth volume to be published in the series Theatre in Europe: A Documentary History, charts the development of theatrical presentation at a time of great cultural and political upheaval and is, for today's theatre practitioner, historian and theoretician, the most inspiring and important period in the evolution of our art. Putting on plays was no longer an end in itself, but the creation of imaginary worlds had to be justified on ethical, sociological, political, as well as aesthetic grounds. It is also a period that still affects every aspect of play-making today. With few exceptions, the documents from France, Germany, Russia, Scandinavia, Italy and Spain are unavailable to an English-reading public and many are out of print (or unpublished) in their original language. The volume contains numerous illustrations, the source location for each document and substantial bibliography.