For Medical-Surgical courses in Licensed Practical/Vocational Nursing programs Answers the question, what do practical vocational nurses need to know and to be able to do in order to deliver safe and effective medical-surgical nursing care? This comprehensive text prepares basic practical/vocational nursing students to care for adult clients with medical or surgical disorders or diseases. With an emphasis on the nursing role, it explains the risk factors, causes, and pathophysiology of common disorders and diseases, and reviews diagnostic tests and medical management of the disorders. A focus on nursing care is presented in a nursing process format-including assessment data to collect, nursing diagnoses with suggested interventions and their rationales, and evaluation data to determine the effectiveness of nursing care.
Table of Contents
I. OVERVIEW OF ARGUMENT. 1. Argument: An Introduction. What Do We Mean by Argument? Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims. Argument Is Both a Process and a Product. Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion. Argument and the Problem of Truth. A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning Committee. Gordon Adams, Petition to Waive the University Math Requirement (Student Essay). Conclusion 2. Reading Arguments. Why Reading Arguments Is Important for Writers. Strategy 1: Reading as a Believer. *Lisa Turner, Playing with Our Food. Strategy 2: Reading as a Doubter. Strategy 3: Exploring How Rhetorical Context and Genre Shape the Argument. Strategy 4: Seeking Out Alternative Views and Analyzing Sources of Disagreement. *Council for Biotechnology Information, Biotech Labeling: Why Biotech Labeling Can Confuse Consumers. *An Analysis of the Sources of Disagreement between Lisa Turner and the Council for Biotechnology Information (Sample Analysis Essay). Strategy 5: Using Disagreement Productively to Prompt Further Investigation. Conclusion 3. Writing Arguments. Who Writes Arguments and Why? Tips for Improving Your Writing Process. Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking. Shaping Your Argument: Classical Argument as a Planning Tool. Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking: Two Sets of Exploratory Tasks. Writing Assignments for Chapters 1-3. II. PRINCIPLES OF ARGUMENT. 4. The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons. An Introduction to the Classical Appeals. Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument. Difference Between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument. Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons. Applying This Chapter's Principles to Your Own Writing. Applying This Chapter's Principles to Reading Arguments. 5. The Logical Structure of Arguments. Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the "Logical Structure" of an Argument? Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System. Using Toulmin's Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support. The Power of Audience-Based Reasons. 6. Using Evidence Effectively. General Principles for the Persuasive Use of Evidence. Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence. Gathering Evidence. Writing Assignments for Chapters 4-6. David Langley, "'Half-Criminals' or Urban Athletes? A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders" (Student Essay). 7. Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos. Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview. How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility. How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions. Kairos-The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments 8. Accommodating Your Audience: Treating Differing Views. One-Sided, Multisided, and Dialogic Arguments. Determining Your Audience's Resistance to Your Views. Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument. Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument. Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument. Ellen Goodman, Minneapolis Pornography Ordinance. *Rebekah Taylor, Letter to Jim (Student Essay). Writing Assignments for Chapters 7 and 8. 9. Conducting Visual Arguments. Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument. *Drug Enforcement Administration, "A Single Hit of Ecstasy..." (advocacy advertisement) The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings. The Genres of Visual Argument. Constructing Your Own Visual Argument. *Leah Johnson, "Drink and Then Drive? Jeopardize My Future?" (student essay) Using Information Graphics in Arguments. Writing Assignment for Chapter 9. III. CLAIM TYPES IN ARGUMENT. 10. An Introduction to Types of Claims. An Overview of the Types of Claims. How Knowledge of Claim Types Will Help You Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments Aaron Friedman, All That Noise for Nothing 11. Categorical and Definition Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Y. An Overview of Categorical Arguments. Simple Categorical Arguments. An Overview of Definitional Arguments. The Criteria-Match Structure of Definitional Arguments. Conceptual Problems of Definition. Kinds of Definitions. Strategies for Defining the Contested Term in a Definitional Argument. Conducting the Match Part of a Definitional Argument. Organizing a Definitional Argument. Questioning and Critiquing a Definitional Argument. Reading. Kathy Sullivan, Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board (Student Essay). Writing Assignment for Chapter 11. 12. Causal Arguments: X Causes (Does Not Cause) Y. An Overview of Causal Arguments. The Nature of Causal Arguing. Describing a Causal Argument in Toulmin Terms. Three Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another. Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments. Organizing Your Causal Argument. Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument. Readings. Daeha Ko, The Monster That Is High School (student essay). *United Way, "Kids Who Do Not Participate" (Advocacy Advertisement). Writing Assignment for Chapter 12. 13. Resemblance Arguments: X Is (Is Not) Like Y. An Overview of Resemblance Arguments. Arguments by Analogy. Arguments by Precedent. Organizing a Resemblance Argument. Questioning and Critiquing a Resemblance Argument. Readings. *Megan Matthews, Whales Need Silence (Student Essay). Sven Van Assche, Knock! Knock! (Political Cartoon) Writing Assignment for Chapter 13. 14. Evaluation and Ethical Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Good Y; X Is Right (Wrong). An Overview of Evaluation Arguments. Criteria-Match Structure of Evaluation Arguments. Conducting a Categorical Evaluation Argument. An Overview of Ethical Arguments. Major Ethical Systems. Constructing an Ethical Argument. Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments. Organizing an Evaluation Argument. Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation. Critiquing an Ethical Evaluation. Readings. Sam Isaacson, Would Legalization of Gay Marriage Be Good for the Gay Community? (Student Essay). David Holcberg, Human Organs for Sale? Writing Assignment for Chapter 14. 15. Proposal Arguments: "We Should (Should Not) Do X." The Nature of Proposal Arguments. The Structure of Proposal Arguments. Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments. Developing a Proposal Argument. Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements. Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument. Using the "Stock Issues" Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument. Organizing a Proposal Argument. Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument. Readings. *Mark Bonicillo, A Proposal for Universal Health Insurance in the United States (MLA-Style Student Research Paper). Maia Szalavitz, Let a Thousand Poppies Bloom Writing Assignment for Chapter 15. APPENDICES. Appendix 1: Informal Fallacies. Fallacies of Pathos Fallacies of Ethos Fallacies of Logos Appendix 2: A Concise Guide to Finding, Evaluating, and Documenting Sources. Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database. Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web. Evaluating Sources. Evaluating Web Sites. Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism. Citing Sources in MLA Style Documenting Sources in a "Works Cited" List (MLA). MLA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations. Formatting an Academic Paper in MLA Style. Student Example of an MLA-Style Research Paper. Citing Sources in APA Style. Documenting Sources in a "References" List (APA). APA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations. Student example of an APA-Style Research Paper. *Megan Matthews, Sounding the Alarm: Navy Sonar and the Survival of Whales (APA-Style Student Research Paper). Credits Index
Karen M. Burke, RN, MS Karen M. Burke is the Education Consultant for the Oregon State Board of Nursing. She obtained her initial nursing education at Emanuel Hospital School of Nursing in Portland, Oregon, later completing baccalaureate studies at Oregon Health & Sciences University, and a master's degree at University of Portland. Ms. Burke has extensive clinical nursing experience in acute care and community-based settings, as well as more than 20 years of experience as a nurse educator and program administrator. As a nurse educator, Ms. Burke is known as a leader and an innovator. She led the faculty of an associate degree nursing program in developing an online program to deliver nursing education to a distant rural community. Ms. Burke is actively involved in nursing education in Oregon, participating in the development of an educational consortium of a public university and local community colleges to deliver a common baccalaureate degree nursing curriculum around the state. She also is actively involved in the Oregon Nursing Leadership Council Education Committee, helping identify strategies to recruit and retain nursing faculty, develop innovative clinical models, and provide policy guidelines for use by all nursing education programs in the state. In addition, Ms. Burke is working with nursing leaders and educators to identify and develop strategic plans to more effectively educate and use practical nurses (LPNs) in Oregon. As education consultant to the Board, she works directly with new and existing practical and registered nursing programs to promote and maintain current and high-quality nursing education for the citizens of Oregon. Ms. Burke strongly values the nursing profession and believes in the importance of a strong education in the art and science of nursing for all students entering the profession. She believes that her diverse experience as a nursing student, clinical nurse, and nurse educator and administrator has prepared her well to relate to nursing students in diverse educational settings. Ms. Burke and her husband Steve love to garden, travel, and spend time with their extended family. Ms. Burke also enjoys a passion for quilting, accumulating and gradually completing multiple UFOs (unfinished objects). Priscilla LeMone, RN, DSN, FAAN Priscilla LeMone has spent most of her career as a nurse educator, teaching medical-surgical nursing and pathophysiology at all levels from diploma to doctoral students. She has a diploma in nursing from Deaconess College of Nursing (St. Louis, Missouri), baccalaureate and master's degrees from Southeast Missouri State University, and a doctorate in nursing from the University of Alabama-Birmingham. Dr. LeMone has retired from the Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri-Columbia as Associate Professor Emeritus. Dr. LeMone has received numerous awards for scholarship and teaching during her over 30 years as a nurse educator. She is most honored for receiving the Kemper Fellowship for Teaching Excellence from the University of Missouri-Columbia and the Unique Contribution Award from the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, and for being selected as a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing. She believes that her education gave her solid and everlasting roots in nursing. Her work with students has given her the wings that allow her love of nursing and teaching to continue through the years. Elaine L. Mohn-Brown, RN, EdD Elaine L. Mohn-Brown received her Diploma in Nursing from Akron General Medical Center School of Nursing in Akron, Ohio. She has baccalaureate and master's degrees in nursing and health education from Metropolitan State College and University of Northern Colorado, and an EdD in higher education administration from Brigham Young University. She has worked in critical care units in Ohio and Colorado. Her first teaching position was as a practical nursing instructor at Larimer County Vocational-Technical Center in Colorado. For the past 26 years, she has been on the faculty of the ADN Program at Chemeketa Community College in Salem, Oregon. Through thought-provoking classroom presentations and hands-on acute care medical-surgical experiences, she has encouraged students to question and understand the rationale for their nursing care. She has implemented an extensive orientation program for novice nursing faculty at Chemeketa Community College and in 2005 developed Clinical Teaching in Oregon, a DVD to educate new clinical nursing faculty. Dr. Mohn-Brown serves as a member of the Editorial Advisory Board for Nurse Educator and is a program evaluator for the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities. She has published nationally and conducts workshops at the national level. Her love of nursing and teaching has taken her to numerous international and national conferences. Linda Eby, RN, MN Linda Eby received her baccalaureate and master's degrees in nursing from Oregon Health and Sciences University. She has 31 years of experience in nursing. Her nursing practice has been in critical care, home health/hospice, and psychiatric mental health nursing. As a Clinical Nurse Specialist in clinical genetics, she coordinated the Prenatal Genetics Clinic at OHSU. She has conducted workshops on teaching diverse students of nursing. As secretary of the American Federation of Teachers-Oregon, she serves as an advocate for the rights of education employees and students. Ms. Eby has been teaching nursing at the community college level for 20 years. Her current teaching areas are nursing fundamentals, diabetes care, transcultural nursing, and psychiatric mental health nursing. She is the coordinator of a Nursing Student Success Program, which serves students who speak English as a non-native language, immigrant students, and other nontraditional students. Ms. Eby loves and respects the profession of nursing even more now than she did 31 years ago. Fortunately, she has two wonderful daughters and two good dogs to provide balance in her life.