Metal and metalloid-containing compounds exhibit a wide range of biological and biocidal activities, some of which have been employed in medicines and drugs. Polymers containing metal or metalloid functions become a natural extension of this effort; just as organic compound drugs have been chemically bound to polymers or physically imbibed into polymer matrices in order to provide a variety of useful advantages, the same opportunities exist for using metal and metalloid species. This volume will cover important biomedical applications of organometallic compounds, including metal-labeled DNA on surfaces, artificial metallo-DNA, organotin molecules as anti-cancer drugs, and much more. Provides useful descriptions of biomedical applications for the reader to apply in his/her research into materials, polymers, and medicine/drug development. Edited by high-quality team of macromolecular experts from around the world
Table of Contents
Preface.Series Preface.1. Organometallic Compounds in Biomedical Applications (Charles E. Carraher Jr. and Charles U. Pittman Jr.).I. Introduction.II. Case for Metal-Containing Bioactive Agents.A. Tin-Containing Biocidal Polymers.B. Ferrocene: A Therapeutic Role in Polymeric Systems?C. Polymeric Moderation of OsO4 Toxicity.III. Miscellaneous Polymers.A. Metal Chelation Polymers.B. Condensation Polymers.IV. Small-Molecule Analogs.V. Summary.VI. References.2. Metal-Labeled DNA on Surfaces (Heinz-Bernhard Kraatz, Yitao Long, and Todd C. Sutherland).I. Introduction.II. Ferrocene Nucleotides.III. Ferrocene-DNA Conjugates.IV. Other Metal-DNA Conjugates.V. Metallated DNA.A. Cu-DNA.B. M-DNA.VI. Summary.VII. Acknowledgments.VIII. References.3. Artificial DNA through Metal-Mediated Base Pairing: Structural Control and Discrete Metal Assembly (Mitsuhiko Shionoya).I. Introduction.II. Alternative Hydrogen-Bonding Schemes for DNA Base Pairing.III. Non-Hydrogen-Bonding Basepairs in DNA.IV. Metal-Mediated Base Pairing in DNA.A. Basic Concept.B. Artificial Nucleosides Designed for Metal-Mediated Base Pairs.C. Incorporation of a Metallo-Base Pair in DNA and Its Effect on Thermal Stability.D. Discrete Self-Assembled Metal Arrays in DNA.V. Future Prospects for Artificial Metallo-DNA.VI. Summary.VII. References.4. Organotin Macromolecules as Anticancer Drugs (Charles E. Carraher Jr. and Deborah Siegmann-Louda).I. General.II. Anticancer Activity of Small Organotin Compounds.III. Molecule-Level Studies on Monomeric Organotin Compounds.IV. Anticancer Activity of Organotin Polymers.V. Future Work.VI. References.5. Organotin Oligomeric Drugs Containing the Antivirial Agent Acyclovir (Charles E. Carraher Jr. and Robert E. Bleicher).I. Early History of Organotin Compounds.II. Mechanisms and Reactions.III. General Structures.IV. Acyclovir.V. Bioactivity of Related Compounds.VI. Experimental Work.VII. Results and Discussion.VIII. References.6. Polymeric Ferrocene Conjugates as Antiproliferative Agents (Eberhard W. Neuse).I. Introduction.II. The Ferrocene-Ferricenium System in the Biological Environment.III. Polymer-Drug Conjugation as a Pharmaceutical Tool for Drug Delivery.IV. Polymer-Ferrocene Conjugates: Synthesis and Structure.A. The Carrier Component: Structural Considerations.B. Conjugates of Amide-Linked Ferrocene.C. Conjugates of Ester-Linked Ferrocene.V. Bioactivity Screening.VI. Summary and Conclusions.VII. Acknowledgments.VIII.References.7. Polymeric Platinum-Containing Drugs in the Treatment of Cancer (Deborah W. Siegmann-Louda and Charles E. Carraher Jr).I. Introduction.II. Basic Mechanisms of Pt(II) Complex Formation.III. Nomenclature.IV. Currently Approved Platinum-Containing Compounds.V. Properties of Cisplatin.VI. Structure-Activity Relationships.VII. Polymer-Drug Conjugation Strategy and Possible Benefits.A. Polymers as Carriers.B. Polymers as Drugs.C. General.VIII. Mainchain-Incorporated cis-Diamine-Coordinated Platinum.A. Simple Amine Derivatives.B. Amino Acid Derivatives.C. Other Nitrogen-Platinum Products.D. Solution Stability.E. Thermal Stability.F. Antiviral Activity.IX. Platinum Carrier-Bound Complexes via Nitrogen Donor Ligands.A. Pt-Polyphosphazenes.B. Slowly Biofissionable Pt-N Complexes Anchored through Primary and Secondary Amines.C. Biofissionable Pt-N Complexes Anchored through Primary and Secondary Amines.X. Pt-O-Bound Polymers.XI. Mixed Pt-O/Pt-N-Bound Polymers.XII. Future Work.XIII. Acknowledgments.XIV. References.8. New Organic Polyacid-Inorganic Compounds for Improved Dental Materials (Bill M. Culbertson, Minhhoa H. Dotrong, and Scott R. Schricker).I. Introduction.II. Glass Ionomer Technology.A. Amino Acid-Modified Glass Ionomers.B. N-Vinylpyrrolidone (NVP)-Modified Glass Ionomers.III. New NVP-Modified Glass Ionomers: Experimental Work.A. Materials.B. Polymer Synthesis.C. Characterization.D. Physical Properties.IV. Results and Discussion.V. Conclusions.VI. References.Index.
Dr. Alaa Abd-El-Aziz is Professor of Chemistry and the Associate Vice-President of Research & Graduate Studies at the University of Winnipeg. Dr. Charles Carraher is Professor of Chemistry at Florida Atlantic University and Associate Director of the Florida Center for Environmental Studies. Dr. Charles Pittman has a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Lafayette College and a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from Pennsylvania State University. He completed postdoctoral studies with G. A. Olah, and served on active duty at the U.S. Army University of Alabama. He was appointed Full Professor in 1975 and University Research Professor in 1977. Dr. Pittman came to Mississippi State in 1983 as Professor of Industrial Chemistry and Catalysis. He is also Research Director of the University/Industry Chemical Research Center. Martin Zeldin is a Visiting Professor of Chemistry at the Hobart and William Smith Colleges. He received his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry in 1968 from Pennsylvania State University. John Sheats is the Chairperson of the Department of Chemistry and a Professor of Chemistry at Rider University.