Longlining is becoming increasingly more important as a method of fishing commercially for certain prime species of fish, particularly in the face of declining stocks. It is much more selective than any other form of fishing and is, thus, more environmentally acceptable. Furthermore, it allows for the targeting of particular prime species and fish caught by this method are less damaged and, therefore, hold a higher value. This volume addresses the technical and economic aspects of longlining as a method of commercial fishing. It describes the principles and development of longline fishing, and explains the action of chemical sensing in fish and their behaviour towards baited hooks. Details of gear construction, the operation cycle for longlines, longline vessels and the different principles of mechanized baiting and on-board gear handling are provided and typical examples are given. The target species, gear parameters and catching efficiency, and the selective properties of longline gear are fully discussed, whilst a concluding chapter compares longlining with other fishing methods.