This volume is concerned with those parts of Indian pramana theory that Western philosophers would count as logic and philosophy of language. Indian philosophers and linguists were much concerned with philosophical issues having to do with language, especially with theories of meaning, while the Indian logicians developed both a formalized canonical inference schema and a theory of fallacies. The logic of the standard Indian inferential model is deductive, but the premises are arrived at inductively. The later Navya-Nyaya logicians also went on to develop a powerful technical language. This intentional logic of cognitions became the language of all serious discourse in India. The selections in this volume discuss Indian treatments of topics in logic and the philosophy of language, such as the nature of inference, negation, necessity counterfactual reasoning, many-valued logics, theory of meaning, reference and existence, compositionality and contextualism, the sense-reference distinction and the nature of the signification relation.